Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) remains to be a common and potentially serious complication of ventilator care often confronted within an intensive care unit (ICU). Ventilated and intubated patients present ICU physicians, nurses, and respiratory therapists with the unique challenge to integrate evidence-informed practices surrounding the delivery of high quality care that will decrease its occurrence and frequency. Mechanical intubation negates effective cough reflexes and hampers mucociliary clearance of secretions, which cause leakage and microaspiration of virulent bacteria into the lungs. VAP is the most frequent cause of nosocomial infections and occurs within 48 hours of intubation. VAP is a major health care burden with its increased morbidity, mortality, longer ventilator days and hospital stay, and escalating health care cost.
Epidemiology of VAP
Hunter, Annadurai and Rothwell defines ventialtor-associated pneumonia as nosocomial pneumonia occurring in patients receiving more than 48 hours of mechanical ventilation via tracheal or trascheotomy tube. It is commonly classified as either early onset (occurring within 96 hours of start of mechanical ventilation) or late onset (>96 hours after start of mechanical ventilation. A ventilator is a machine that is used to help a patient breathe by giving oxygen through an endotracheal tube, which is a tube placed in a patient’s mouth or nose, or through a tracheostomy, which is a surgical opening created trough the trachea in front of the neck. Infection may occur if bacteria or virus enters the tube into the lungs or airways by manual manipulation of the ventilator tubing.
Ventilator-associated pneumonia accounts for 80% of hospital-acquired pneumonia, 8-28% of incubate...
... middle of paper ...
Meanwhile, a study made by Palmer found that inhaled antibiotics used as adjunct to systemic antibiotic therapy has proven to improve the clinical outcome of patients with MDR VAP (6). The study also showed a direct relationship between antibiotic resistance with the se of systematic antibiotics. Aerosolized antibiotic used in this study that are proven to be effective are: amikacin, colistin, ceftazidime, gentamicin, tobramycin, sisomycin, and yancomycin.
However, increasing antibiotic resistance patterns among intensive care unit pathogens, cultivated by empiric-broad spectrum antibiotic regimens, characterizes the variable concerns. Recent literature point that antibiotic use before the development of VAP is associated with increased risk for potentially resistant gran-negative infections and Methcillin-resistant Staphylococcus auereus (MRSA)