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Vaccines and the Prophylactic use of Antipyretics

explanatory Essay
2523 words
2523 words
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Background Many parents express concern and worry over their child developing fever after receiving vaccines. Because of this, parents often choose to medicate their child with antipyretics in order to prevent this unpleasant side effect. According to Pedulla (2012), it was previously common practice by pediatric health care provides to recommend using an antipyretic prior to the administration of immunizations in order to reduce fever and discomfort experienced by the patient until a study done by Prymula and colleagues in 2009 showed evidence that these types of medications caused a decline in primary antibody response. Current practice in most pediatric clinics is not standardized when it comes to the administration of antipyretics and immunizations. There are healthcare providers who will order a dose of acetaminophen for a child to be given prior to administering immunizations, some providers send patients home with a prescription of acetaminophen or ibuprofen to be given once a child returns home, yet others tell parents to avoid the use of acetaminophen or ibuprofen until a child actually has a fever. So which practice is correct? Does the prophylactic use of antipyretics prior to the administration of immunizations decrease the efficacy of the vaccine? What education should be given to parents regarding the use of acetaminophen and ibuprofen before immunizations? These are the questions behind the proposal to research the outcomes of administering antipyretics, such as acetaminophen and ibuprofen, prior to immunization and its effect on vaccine effectiveness. Statement of Significance When it comes to immunizations, nurses are at the front lines. Most of all childhood immunizations are administered by nurses in a vari... ... middle of paper ... ...rics, 13(1), 98. Simmons, S. (1990). The health-promoting self-care system model: Directions for nursing research and practice. Journal Of Advanced Nursing, 15(10), 1162-1166. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2648.1990.tb01708.x Sorensen, R., Paris, K. (2012). Assessing the immunologic response to vaccination. In R. Stiehm (Ed.), UpToDate. Retrieved from http://www.uptodateonline.com. Sullivan, J.E., & Farrar, F.C. (2011). Fever and antipyretic use in children. Pediatrics, 127(3), 580-587. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2009). Code of federal regulations: Protection of human subjects. Retrieved from http://www.hhs.gov/ohrp/humansubjects/commonrule/ Wallenstein, M. B., Schroeder, A. R., Hole, M. K., Ryan, C., Fijalkowski, N., Alvarez, E., & Carmichael, S. L. (2012). Fever literacy and fever phobia. Clinical Pediatrics, 52(3), 254-259. doi:10.1177/0009922812472252

In this essay, the author

  • Opines that the prophylactic use of antipyretics prior to immunizations decreases the efficacy of the vaccine.
  • Opines that nurses are at the front lines when it comes to immunizations, and that they should be educated about current and up-to-date research findings in regards to antipyretics.
  • Explains that the purpose of this study is to determine the efficacy of vaccines when antipyretics are administered prophylactically prior to immunizations.
  • Describes the effects of prophylactic administration of antipyretics (acetaminophen and ibuprofen) on vaccine efficacy.
  • Explains that when antipyretics are administered prophylactically, the efficacy of vaccines is reduced due to interference with immune response.
  • Explains that the review of literature was performed using both cinhal and medline databases. the initial review focused on clinical trails related to vaccines and the use of antipyretics.
  • Explains how antipyretics, such as acetaminophen, work to produce immunity and how immunity is evaluated.
  • Explains that only one study addressed the prophylactic use of antipyretics and its’ effects on vaccine efficacy.
  • Opines that more research is needed to ensure that the practice of administering prophylactic antipyretics to children receiving vaccines is not causing possible harm by decreasing antibody response.
  • Explains the chosen methodology that will be used for this research study. the design, sample, procedures, data collection and data analysis of this study are explained.
  • Explains that a quantitative experimental study design will be used to construct the randomized controlled trial (rct) consisting of two study groups, one treatment group, and one control group.
  • Explains that the study participants will be infants ages 6-8 weeks at the time of enrollment. exclusion criteria for this study include those with contraindications for acetaminophen use, hepatitis b (hbv), polio (ivp), haemophilus influenzae type b, pcv, and/or rotavirus.
  • Explains that the recruitment of study participants will take place at a military treatment facility in the southwestern united states. enrollment will be offered to parents by the pediatric clinic during the two-week well baby appointment.
  • Explains that participants will be randomized into one of two groups by sas statistical software. the treatment group will receive four weight-based doses of acetaminophen after vaccination.
  • Explains that antibody responses will be determined by indirect antibody-antigen testing, also known as antibody titers, using blood or serum samples to test for antibodies that have formed due to exposure to a particular antigen.
  • Explains that the objective of the study is to determine whether acetaminophen has an effect on antibody response, whether positive or negative.
  • Explains that informed consent will be obtained from the parents of all enrolled study participants. the federal policy for the protection of human subjects is adhered to.
  • Explains that because the study requires participants to follow up in one month, there is the possibility that some participants may drop out before follow-up data is collected. the military population is highly mobile and changes of duty station occur often.
  • Describes the recommendations for the prophylactic use of analgesics and antipyretics.
  • Proposes the health-promoting self-care system model as an organizing perspective for explaining the cumulative and interactive relationships among factors which influence the decision-making, performance, and outcomes of health-promoting lifestyles.
  • Explains that fever phobia is due to a lack of parental understanding and education regarding fever. prophylactic antipyretics should not be routinely recommended.
  • Introduces the practice of nursing research: appraisal, synthesis, and generation of evidence.
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