In this paper I reviewed two articles and provide an analytical summary of them both. The first article summarized analytically is Predictive Probes: Scientists are Focusing on Genes Predisposing People to Illnesses --- New Methods Will Facilitate Prevention but Will Raise Ethical, Legal Questions --- Should Employers Be Told? Written by Jerry E. Bishop. In this article, I identified the three ways that the author used evidence to support assertions. I went on to identify the places where evidence was employed as well as how the author used the evidence.
Later, the information regarding to the primary data methodology is given. This section explicates the reasons behind the selection of a quantitative approach as well as the instrument employed to collect the data. In addition the questions included in the questionnaire are explained and pre-tested. Lastly the sampling method is also described in conjunction with the data analysis process and the ethical standards of the research study. 4.1 Type of research design A research design according to Churchill and Iacobucci (2005) can be defined as “The framework or plan for a study, used as a guide to collect and analyze data.
The topic of gene therapy in humans is one that is highly debated due to the ethical implications connected to the science. Both sides of the debate have various reasons for their position, but the main factors come down to the ethics of changing someone’s genome and the consequences that accompany the altercations. The two types of gene therapy, somatic and germ-line are seen in different lights. There is more debate over germ-line therapy because the alterations have more consequences than somatic gene therapy. There are many moral and ethical decisions that need to be considered before gene therapy can be widely accepted.
Prior to 1933, scientists promoted radical measures in the study of racial science. "Prominent eugenicists-anthropologists, geneticists, psychiatrists-influenced both Nazi ideologues and a generation of scientists and physicians" (Friedlander 123). Literature from these scientists influenced Adolf Hitler and many scientists during the Nazi period (Friedlander 123). Science in Germany quickly adjusted to the ideas of race and eugenics. "The enthusiastic participation of the scientific and medical establishment in the sterilization program was an indication of the fact that its ideology meshed with that of the Nazi movement' (Friedlander 125).
Human Experimentation the Ethical Issue Throughout history humans have been experimenting on each other in order to gather more information on our species. Countles studies have been carried out on human subjects usually without even consent from the patient. Although these experiments are questioned ethically and morally many have argued that these experiments are justified because they were done for the greater good. I will be discussing the ethical issues behind human experimentation and applying it to many theroies including utilitarianism and deontology; while also discussing how these issues apply to an individual living in a culturally diverse world. Utilitarianism is defined as “a theory about what we ought to do.
(pp. 191). New York: Oxford University Press Inc. Hirschi, T. (2011). Social bond theory. In F. Cullen & R. Agnew (Eds.
Overall, medical practice is performed when physicians identify health concerns, including diseases, mental disorders, and physical injuries, and provide a treatment for their patients in order to properly cure them of their maladies. The appropriate basis for medical practice is a combination of physicians’ knowledge acquired from scientific research and education, and ethical considerations regarding the wellbeing of patients. Additionally, if no scientific support is available, patients must rely on intuition and experience in order to make a proper diagnosis. On the whole, science plays a major role in the realm of medicine, as it is the foundation for the creation of new treatments and education. Science is defined as “…research firmly based upon one or more past scientific achievements, achievements that some particular scientific community acknowledges for a time as supplying the foundation for its further practice” (Kuhn 70).
New York: Oxford University Press. Swift, J. K., Callahan, J. L., & Vollmer, B. M., (2011). Preferences. In J. C. Norcross (Ed. ), Psychotherapy relationships that work (2nd ed.).
While Cesare Lombroso was the first to apply positivism to criminology, it was made possible by the efforts of Auguste Comte, who was the first person to suggest trying to solve problems using scientific reasoning (Adler et al 2012). Also the work of Charles Darwin was able to make society more receptive to the idea of science being an acceptable way to answer questions and solve problems in society. Those three men were able to make criminology a more legitimate and respected field. Works Cited Adler, Freda, Gerhard O. W. Mueller, and William S. Laufer. Criminology.
The commission’s was best known for the Belmont Report, recognizing three ethical principles (respect, beneficence, and justice) which would serve as the foundation in developing rules and conduct of research. The Belmont report or Title 45 contains the Code of Federal Regulations regarding the use of human subjects in research. It is this law under which the St. Francis University functions. The Federal regulation requires each institution engaged in research involving humans subject appoint members to form a review board. This Institutional Review Board (IRB) function is to review all projects created by any members of St. Francis University and verify the criteria in each research project protects the human rights under the federal and any other requirements specific to state or institution (NIH, January 15, 2009).