Upper Gastrointestinal Visit (GIT)

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Gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is the portal through which nutritive substances; vitamins, minerals and fluids enter the body. The digestive tract is more than 10 metres long from one end to the other. It is continuous starting from the mouth, passing through the pharynx and the oesophagus, to the stomach, the small and large intestines, ending in the rectum, and finally into the anus. The GI tract is divided into two main sections: the upper GI tract and the lower GI tract. Upper GIT includes the mouth, pharynx, oesophagus and stomach. The lower GI tract includes the small and large intestines and anus. The accessory organs of digestions are the gallbladder, liver and pancreas. Diseases that may occur in upper and lower GIT can be divided as oesophageal diseases, gastric diseases and intestinal diseases. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding originates in the first part of the GIT, affecting the esophagus, stomach or duodenum. The symptoms of upper GI bleeding are hematemesis, coffee ground vomiting, melena, hematochezia (maroon coloured stool) if the hemorrhage is severe, severe syncope, chest pain, shortness of breath and anemia. Esophageal varices, esophagitis, Mallory-Weiss tears, esophageal ulcers or even esophageal cancers may cause esophageal bleeding. Esophageal varices are defined as extremely dilated and tortuous sub-mucosal veins in the lower third of the esophagus. They are most often a consequence of portal hypertension, commonly secondary to liver cirrhosis. They are asymptomatic until they rupture leading to massive hemorrhage. Half of the cases of the rupture may subside spontaneously but however 20-30% die during the first attack. Treatments to stop bleeding due to this case include using elastic bands to tie off bleed... ... middle of paper ... ...more frequent in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic renal failure and hyperparathyroidism. The causes include the infection of H.pylori and causes of acute gastritis. Medications similar to gastritis are used to treat this disease. Stomach cancer or gastric cancer is a malignant tumor arising from the lining of the stomach. Adenocarcinoma is the most common type of stomach cancer, which starts in the glandular tissue of the stomach and accounts for 90% to 95% of all stomach cancers. Other forms of stomach cancer include lymphomas, which involve the lymphatic system and sarcomas, which involve the connective tissue (such as muscle, fat, or blood vessels). It may often be cured if it is found and treated at an early stage. Unfortunately, the outlook is poor if the cancer is already at an advanced stage when discovered.

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