Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Frequently Asked Questions about the Safety of the 2009 H1N1 Influenza Vaccine. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 19 Mar. 2010. Web.
We have since been in the process of discovering antiviral therapies that would cure HIV which is the cause of AIDS. In doing so, we have not only tripped upon ways to treat AIDS we may have also discovered ways to treat other viruses too. One of these new developments is called viral genomics Which basically makes sense of the sequence of nucleic acids in a viruses genetic code. This order of nucleic acids form the code for viral proteins that are basically the working parts of the viruses and control the virus. With this information scientists are able to learn how the individual viruses are able to cause disease in humans such as AIDS.
Drug resistance is the capability for a microbe, such as bacteria, to continue to grow even in the presence of an antimicrobial, which was meant to halt the growth or kill the microbe. In this particular instance, the antimicrobial is rendered unusable when trying to treat or cure a specific infection. As a result, the drug becomes ineffective due to the resistance that the microbe has developed toward it. The reason this occurs is because of a gene that certain microbes possess, which allow it to become resistant toward the antimicrobial. Bacteria can develop this resistance through mutations as well as when a bacteria obtains a new DNA helicase.
Corrigendum to:‘‘EASL clinical practice guidelines: Management of chronic hepatitis B virus infection’’[J Hepatol 2012; 57: 167--185]. Journal of Hepatology. 2013;58:201. 3. Scaglione S, Lok A.
Resistant cells are able to produce enzyme(s) that destroy or deactivate the drug. This is the most common mode of resistance and we see this type of resistance by beta (β) lactamases. These enzymes break the beta-lactam rigs of penicillin, rendering it inactive. 2.) Resistant cells are able to slowly prevent the entry of the drug into a cell.
What is sickle cell anemia? [Internet]. [cited 2011 Jan 22] Available from: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/dci/Diseases/Sca/SCA_WhatIs.html. Platt OS. 2008.
Review of the Research Report: An Orally Bioavailable, Small Molecule Antagonist of the Chemokine Receptor CCR5, is a Potent Inhibitor of HIV-1 Infection in vitro and in vivo Background The human body contains two type of immunity—innate immunity and adaptive immunity. Adaptive immunity provides a specific response against the antigens of pathogens. White blood cells or lymphocytes are the main tools of adaptive immunity. There are two main types of lymphocytes; T and B cells. Pathogens have chemical signals, antigens, which the immune system recognizes.
They are also seperated depending on their activity sepectrum. Narrow antibiotics target a spesfic group of bacteria while a broad spectrum targets many different kinds of cells. The first antibiotic and most well known is penicillin. It was discov... ... middle of paper ... ... to. Penicillin works by inhibiting the bacterial cell wall from synthesizing.The bacteria's cell wall is made up of mucoprotiens, which is a polymer made up of amino acids and sugars bonded together to form the cell wall.
Such bacteria have the potential to become “superbugs.” The bacteria that produce NDM-1 have mutated to resist both aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones; these are common antidotes that serve as antibiotics. Also, the NDM-1 “enzyme is active against other compounds that contain a chemical structure known as a beta-lactam ring. Unfortunately... ... middle of paper ... ...ug-Resistant Superbugs to Watch Out For. Retrieved October 21, 2011, from CNN: http://articles.cnn.com Nettleman, D. M. (2011). NDM-1 (New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase).
The recombinant subunit protein vaccine is made of bigger pieces of proteins from the HIV virus. Examples of a recombinant subunit protein are gp120, gp140, or gp160 produced by genetic engineering. The DNA vaccine uses copies of a small number of HIV genes which are inserted into pieces of DNA called plasmids. The HIV genes will produce proteins very similar to the ones from real HIV. A live vector vaccine is made of HIV genes that have been taken out of the virus and altered.