Understanding the Social Contexts in which Art Works are Created
When analyzing artwork, in any form, there are often times social contexts in which can be interpreted. Not always does the history behind the painting need to be revealed to fully understand the concept of the artwork, yet it is helpful in determining if the artwork is truthful in its representation. Although in analyzing artwork it is likely that there are drawbacks to considering the social context. To illustrate this point, I'm going to use the visual arts as my medium of choice. Understanding the social context can be an important tool. An advantage of knowing the history of the painting or sculpture can really enrich our knowledge, being in the 21st century, about some of the social periods from previous times. It can demonstrate how traditions were carried out, how they had an impact on the different social classes. It's a visual teaching aid of a sort. Even in the time period of which the artwork was created can be used as a tool to show how the life was in different parts of the world. It was also used as a hammer in the realist movement to show the upper classes that life for the poor was horrible. The visual arts is the only medium in which the pictorial image creates a universal language in which anyone, regardless of nationality or social class can interpret. The text which is created by this language often creates a context which is left open to interpretation. Contexts are created by the artist, critics, judges, the public, essentially, any one who views the work and forms an opinion relating to it. The contexts stem from subject or content of an artwork, and are usually facts regarding the content. Yet, the contexts almost always have backgrounds themselves, therefore making the original contexts, texts. This will be more clearly illustrated later. The chain is seeming to be a never ending process. There are always more conditions to the previous ones. All context, therefore, is in itself, textual. This concept of all context in itself textual is a post-structuralist strategy. A man named Derrida is a man who has developed this idea that the post-structuralist concept of every statement made, can be interpreted in infinite ways, with each interpretation triggering a range of subjective associations. Every statement has an association, therefore it's a sort of domino effect.
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In 1996, Captain Derrick Robinson, Sergeant Delmar Simpson, and Sergeant Nathanael Beech were arraigned for their suspected involvement in one of the biggest sex scandals the United States Military had seen. According to CNN, between these three men, charges of rape and adultery were pending in a huge case of sexual misconduct against female soldiers at Aberdeen Proving Ground in Maryland (CNN, 2996). Following this incident, the United States Military took it upon themselves to open a telephone hotline to encourage the reporting of similar harsh crimes. Furthermore, the spike in reporting influenced extensive research to examine the prevalence of rape against women soldiers in the U.S. Military (Titunik, 2000). This paper will explore the dynamics of rape against women soldiers in the military and the research done on its prevalence.
Stephanie Schroeder was twenty one when she joined the United States Marine Corps shortly after the attack on the World Trader Center. In 2002, Schroeder’s life changed when a fellow Marine beat and raped her in a bathroom. Rather than punishing her assailant, a non-commissioned officer told Schroeder, “Don’t come bitching to me because you had sex and changed your mind” (Martin). Shortly after, Schroder was discharged for a personality disorder that she claims was because she tried to report the incident. Unfortunately, Schroeder’s story is not uncommon. Each year, approximately 26,000 service people are sexually assaulted by other service people each year in the United States military (US Commission on Civil Rights). The Tailhook scandal in 1991, in which 90 service people were sexually assaulted by United States Navy and Marine Corps personnel, shed light on the harmful epidemic of sexual assault in the United States military, but it still goes on today, over twenty years later. Congress has created several pieces of legislation to crack down on the staggering amount of sexual assault that has been going on for decades. Some of the proposed solutions to stop this problem are extreme, such as removing women from certain combat roles, and others are helpful but inadequate, like Senator McCaskill’s recently passed bill, which makes smaller changes to the current military system of handling sexual assault. But neither of these solutions will eradicate the epidemic of sexual assault in the United States military.
In the surveys they have referenced in the article, it displays military sexual trauma increases among women during and after military deployment of unwanted sexual contact in recent years. The authors have recruited and conducted of twenty-two US servicewomen telephone interviews from May 2011 to January 2012 to participate a qualitative study with or without their MST experiences. They asked the participants questions regarding about MST during deployment and other factors which are disturbing their reporting and accessing to services against the perpetrators. The issues of sexism, high stress levels, and failed military leadership contributing factors which put these servicewomen in jeopardy of MST. Some of the interview women said that servicewomen do not report MST due to lack of support from peers, unreliable confidentiality, stigma, and other barriers. The interviewees feel more comfortable opening to medical care services after deployment in the United States that grips with sexual assault cases than throughout deployment around the world. The participants have suggested to improving the MST services: by increasing awareness, prosecution, investigation, cultural shift, and independence service providers. The interviewees recognized that Military se...
Article 120, UCMJ, is rape and sexual assault generally. The manual for courts-martial provides a very detailed and informative definition of what Sexual Assault is. The goal of this article is not to regurgitate that definition for you, but simply to make you aware of some of the common themes and similarities seen in past military sexual assault cases, provide some clarity on the two reporting options and finally to make you aware of some of the resources available to you in the event you become a victim of sexual assault. Many military sexual assault cases share two prominent characteristics; the consumption of alcohol and lack of clearly given consent. The unfortunate and tragic truth is sexual assaults still occur within our ranks. However, we can mitigate our chances of becoming a victim by educating ourselves, being aware of common themes and staying proactive in the prevention of this despicable crime.
Military Sexual Trauma, also known as MST. What is it and why is it important? MST refers to psychological trauma resulting from a sexual assault or repeated, threatening harassment experienced during military service (pg. 3). Now, let us take a moment and think about the relevance of this subject? When we think of our women in combat, what do we see? We see strong and courteous females. But have we ever thought about what could be lurking underneath all that armor?
The purpose of this essay is to discuss the issue of rape and sexual assault in the military. The number of attacks for rape and sexual assault in the military are at an all-time high. Women have recently been allowed to fight on the front line. While this may be a huge achievement for women-kind, for this woman, it is a very scary thought. I am a junior at Texas Academy of Biomedical Sciences; a school geared towards students wishing to enter the medical field. I may be forced to join the military one day if a war breaks out and women are needed to protect the country. I would be happy to serve my country if I did not have to be scared of my fellow soldiers. Rape and sexual assault are major issues in the military and have been for many years without much effort to decrease the attacks. I am suggesting that unless the rape and sexual assault issue is fixed, the amount of people joining the military, specifically the women, will decrease greatly.
Sexual Assault in the military has become an uprising problem. Within the military community, the term sexual assault carries a meaning that includes everything from violent sexual acts such as rape and forcible sodomy, to assault with intent to commit rape, unwanted sexual touching or attention and being a witness of the crime and not reporting it. Although most believe those who commit such heinous crimes are usually a person or persons with a violent record, violence is not a prerequisite for sexual assault. Once a service member becomes a victim of sexual assault, they become much more than a victim of just the crime itself. They fall victim to their own thoughts, never being able to trust their chain of command again, jeopardizing careers
Crime and guns. The two seem to go hand in hand with one another. But are the two really associated? Do guns necessarily lead to crime? And if so do laws placing restrictions on firearm ownership and use stop the crime or protect the citizens? These are the questions many citizens and lawmakers are asking themselves when setting about to create gun control laws. The debate over gun control, however, is nothing new. In 1924, Presidential Candidate, Robert La Follete said, “our choice is not merely to support or oppose gun control but to decide who can own which guns under what conditions.” Clearly this debate still goes on today and is the very reason for the formation of gun control laws.
The US Military has been one of the most powerful and respected fighting forces in the world; it is also a hotbed for sexual assault. Each year, thousands of men and women take an oath to serve and protect their country and each thousands of military service members are sexually assaulted. “Earlier this week, Pentagon officials released a new report which estimated more than 70 sexual assaults occur in the military each day.”(Shane III) Fear of retaliation, both personal and professional, and humiliation stop many service members from reporting their sexual assaults. Those few that make the bold choice to report incidents of sexual assault often finds themselves disappointed by the outcome; assaults that do get reported have an incredibly low rate of conviction of the offender. The US Military has proven over time that they are incapable of effectively dealing with the sexual assault problem that it faces.
The Linfield Gallery is currently hosting an exhibit titled, “Alterations” by Wendy Red Star and Kaj-anne Pepper. The work of these two artists demonstrates the many ways in which cultural identity is expressed and perceived through a mixture of costumes, rituals, and traditions. The costumes, created by Wendy Red Star, mimicked those of traditional Crow dance outfits for males, which are now viewed as a form of women’s fashion. This exhibit is the first time that Red Star and Pepper have displayed their work collaboratively, and I feel that there is a strong connection between these two artists. They both illuminate different aspects of cultural identity and individuality through unique forms of creativity and entertainment.
Sexual assault in the military has become one of the most controversial of all issues that have been discussed over the years. The topic has received extensive media coverage and has contributed to multiple media scandals. According to a Newsweek report done in 2011, women are more likely to be assaulted by fellow soldiers than killed in combat. The Department of Defense estimates approximately 19,000 sexual assaults occur per year amongst military personnel. That number is stifling considering that in the last year only 1,108 troops filed for investigation, and of those only 575 cases were processed. Out of the 575 processed cases only 96 went to Court Martial. Obviously from the numbers, sexual assault is a serious issue in the military. Much like in the civilian world there is bias when it comes to the guilt or innocence of the attacker, as well as the validity in the accounts of the accuser. I believe that the system in place may inadvertently contribute to the continuous rise in sexual assaults and that if this system isn’t fixed quickly, it will be detrimental to the organization as a whole. Sexual assault has seriously negative impacts on service members and their families. That impact carries over to their work, limiting mission readiness, and undermining national security.
The word art is an encompassing one, vastly interpreted and with multiple definitions. In the case of Picasso's painting Guernica, art informs, educates and expresses. Its power lies in its ability to capture and compel an audience nearly six decades after the modern world's "other" day of infamy. To understand fully the painting that evolved out of the Spanish painter's outrage, one must know its context. "Why do you think I date everything I do? Because it is not sufficient to know an artist's works--it is also necessary to know when he did them, why, under what circumstances" (Picasso). An appreciator who knows the saga of Spain's historical fishing village is given a depth of experience that only a genius like Picasso could portray --"it may well be the most terrifying document on the horrors of war ever to be produced by an artist" (Wertenbaker 126).
Art is like the mirror of a society, in many ways. It has always been relatable to and representational of the aspirations of a particular era. That society influences art goes without saying. That art seeks to influence social and cultural phenomenon speaks of its affective power.
Human’s have always struggled to express themselves. Art, is considered by many to be the ultimate form of human expression. Many assume that art has a definition, but this is not the case. Art, it can be said, is “in the eye of the beholder.” This simply means that what you consider art, someone else would not. Art is part of a person’s internal emotions, which signifies why different people see art as different things. Every type of culture and era presents distinctive and unique characteristics. Different cultures all have different views of what art can, and would be, causing art itself to be universally renowned throughout the world.