Understanding The Nature Of Intelligence And Multiple Intelligences

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Intelligence involves the ability to interact with our surroundings by understanding and analysing complex concepts. It also means having the mental capability to be able to adapt, learn and solve problems quickly (Gottfredson, 1997). Understanding the nature of intelligence will greatly help the approach towards enhancing humans’ ability, be it education or research. The study of what represents intelligence is still debatable. Currently there are two main stems of research on the nature of intelligence: general intelligence and multiple intelligences. Multiple intelligences explains that intelligence is separated into different forms of intelligence. Gardner (1983) grouped the abilities into seven forms; logical-mathematical, musical, spatial,…show more content…
He believes that the theory of unitary ability is not fully valid because if humans had only one construct or the same type of intelligence, we would be able to use the same method of teaching to every individual. However, every individual do have a different set of learning styles and abilities to grab information and response differently towards a situation. From this, Gardner (1983) grouped the abilities into seven forms; logical-mathematical, musical, spatial, bodily, intrapersonal, interpersonal and linguistic. Some learn best through logical thinking, some need to do action–based activities, some are have good thought process in language and others are good at thinking structurally. Given this example, all of us actually acquire an individual combination of all the intelligence; one can have strengths in linguistics and musical. The theory of multiple intelligences (MI) has been widely accepted by many educators as this allows schools to help student learn by using their strengths (Hoerr, 2000). Using the MI model approach, schools alter their educational system to allow students to understand better in class rather than having one solid design of teaching. For example applying this to a…show more content…
Spearman (1904) believes in a general intelligence that if a person scores well for a cognitive test, the same person will generally score well in other cognitive tests, which is heavily reliant on psychometric assessments. This is by assessing speed and response that if the person is able to answer a set of questions correctly in a short amount of time, this person would be considered as intelligent but evaluating through tests can probably only explain that the person is smart. This methodology however does not encompass everyone as it can be observed in different situations when someone scores low for an IQ test but is able to very quickly solve a problem in a real situation. Spearman’s unitary intelligence theory was later further studied by Cattell (1941) which Cattell build on the single ‘g’ factor theory and identified that intelligence was in fact multiple, coming up with the Gf-Gc theory (Cattell-Horn Theory of Intelligence). He suggested that there are two expansive types which is fluid intelligence (Gf) and crystallized intelligence (Gc). Fluid intelligence involves thinking abstractly and being able to solve novel tasks (puzzles, strategies, e.g.), believed to peak early in life. Crystallized intelligence involves learning from past experiences and acquired knowledge, which grows with age. The Gf-Gc theory does substantiate Gardner’s MI theory as Gardner's
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