Howard Gardner and Multiple Intelligences Kelsey K. Akita Dixie State University Introduction to Early Childhood Education Howard Gardner and Multiple Intelligences Howard Gardner, a professor of human development at the Harvard Graduate School of Education described human cognitive competence as sets of abilities, talents, or mental skills, also called intelligences. He believed that all individuals possess each of these skills to some extent. However, every individual differs in the degree of skill and the nature of their combination (73-74). Howard Gardner is best known for his theory of Multiple Intelligences which proposed that there are several different kinds of intelligences rather than just one. He emphasized that
Howard Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligence Raed Aljahane MSA 502 The theory advanced by Howard Gardner referred to as Multiple Intelligences, suggests that there are varying degrees of intelligence that an individual possess. Gardner proposed that there are seven forms of intelligence: linguistic, musical, logical-mathematical, spatial, body-kinaesthetic, intrapersonal and interpersonal. This theory proposes that teaching and learning should be based on an individual’s different and unique form of intelligence, (Armstrong, 2009). The traditional teaching method encompasses and focuses on verbal linguistic and mathematical logical intelligence.
Is intelligence a single skill set or a multitude of strengths and abilities? According to Gardner (2008), "An intelligence must also be susceptible to encoding in a symbol system- a culturally contrived system of meaning that captures and conveys important forms of information" (p. 8). The way we as human beings become so successful in our daily lives can be determined in many different ways. People differ in the way their mind works . Many factors influence our capabilities of learning.
Multiple Intelligence Toni Ann Irvine Columbia College Multiple intelligence Howard Gardner’s theory contains eight main multiple intelligence. As the years have progressed there have taken one out and is left with the main seven. These seven are: Linguistic, Mathematical, Spatial, bodily, Musical, Interpersonal, and Intrapersonal. These are found in everyone; however, each person will excel in one or two.
Introduction Howard Gardner was born on July 11, 1943 in Scranton, Pennsylvania and is still alive to this date. He completed his post-secondary education at Harvard, earning his undergraduate degree in 1965 and his Ph. D. in 1971. Gardner is a developmental psychologist who was inspired by the works of Jean Piaget. He is best known for his theory of multiple intelligences. Gardner believed the concept of intelligence was to narrows and didn’t encompass all types of intelligences.
MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCE According to Howard Gardner (1991), every individual is born with a certain intelligence or potential intelligence. It is unfair to teach and/or assess an individual with a standard guideline or benchmark. This is mainly because every individual possess a different intellectual strength and different kinds of mind that learn, perform and understand in a different ways which is difficult to be changed. If an individual cannot understand the way we communicate, we should communicate in the way they can understand.
Howard Gardner proposed the theory of multiple intelligences in his book, "Frames of Mind" in 1983 (Smith, 2006). Initially, Gardner spoke of seven intelligences and later added two. The first two are considered fundamental and most revered in the public school system, they are Linguistic intelligence and Logical-Mathematic intelligence. Linguistic intelligence includes the capability to use, speak and learn languages and words. Logical-Mathematic intelligence is the skill of working proficiently with numbers. Musical intelligence is the ability of performing, recognizing, and writing music. Bodily-Kinesthetic intelligence is utilizing the mind and the body together to solve problems. Visual-Spatial intelligence recognizes patterns of space. Interpersonal intelligence is the ability of understanding people. Intrapersonal is the ability to understand self. The final two that Gardner added in 1999 are, Naturalist, the ability to observe patterns in the way things are organized and Existentialist, the ability to understand spiritual and philosophical issues. Gardner also claims ?intelligences rarely operate independently?. (Smith, 2006)
According to Merriam Webster Intelligence is "the ability to learn or understand things or to deal with new or difficult situations." Howard Gardener discovered the theory multiple intelligence they are musical, kinetic, linguistic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, spatial, logical, and existential intelligence. Unlike the normal school setting, Gardner’s theory helps with student’s learning abilities by focusing on their strengths. Gardner believes that understanding these multiple intelligent theories will help students strengthen their knowledge.
As long as man has been alive education has been an important part of everyday life. Education has allowed man to evolve and continue the treacherous journey of life. Education started just as a means of survival, a way for families to make it day by day, as years progressed education became a luxury most could not afford to have. Education then became the center of life for all. Today education is considered the glue that holds life together, without education a person is simply a paycheck to paycheck victim however with an education a person has to extraordinary chance to become something great. While the status of education transformed over time so did the content that was deemed most urgent and important, education first stood as information
In the article, "The Foundations of the Theory of Multiple Intelligences", by Thomas Armstrong, he explains the creation of multiple intelligence theory. The first intelligence test (or IQ) was established by Alfred Binet, a French psychologist, in relevance for failing students to succeed in college. After eighty years had passed another psychologist, Howard Gardner, begin to debate the thoughts and perceptions of Alfred Binet and redefine the intelligence test into seven specific areas of life. Linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, musical, interpersonal, and intrapersonal were the seven main views of the IQ test that test the level of understanding for each person. In addition to this, all of these seven areas were not meant for everybody to excel in or to understand. Intelligences were sometimes used together to complete one task such as washing clothes. First you have to a visual amount of clothes that can fit into the washer and use a certain amount of muscle to lift the clothes and also measure out the exact amount of liquid needed to clean all of the clothes. In one way or another, everybody has the seven intelligences but may have their on levels on how to use them.