Understanding Stroke Diagnosis and Clinical Features of Stroke Several researchers have attempted to determine the general public's knowledge about stroke risk factors and warning signs. The most commonly cited risk factors were hypertension and stress; the most frequently identified warning signs were dizziness, severe headaches, and unspecified weakness. Knowledge about warning signs may prompt early recognition of strokes and, hence increase the speed and aggressiveness with which people seek medical attention. The five stroke warning signs identified by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and stroke include: (a) sudden weakness of the face, arm, or leg on one side of the body; (b) sudden dimness or loss of vision particularly in one eye; (c) sudden difficulty speaking or trouble understanding speech; (d)sudden severe headache with no known cause; and (e) unexplained dizziness, unsteadiness, or sudden falls. These symptoms are seen especially in conjunction with other warning signs. Facts about Stroke Strokes are the most common cause of disability and leading cause of death in the United States. Estimates of the number of stroke survivors in the United States exceed 3 million, and nearly 150,000 Americans died from stroke in 1995. The frequency with which strokes occur and the devastating effects they can have on survivors and their families make provision of general information about prevention and management an essential element of public health education. Previous researchers have found that between 14% and 40% of adults cannot name a single risk factor associated with stroke. This is reason for concern among the medical community. Neuropathology/Neurochemically speaking Ischaemic str... ... middle of paper ... ...rain. Glutamate antagonists have been successful in treating various animal models of epilepsy and by effectively protecting against epilepsy brain damage. Works Cited Albers, MD, Gregory W. (1997). Rationale for Early Intervention in Acute Stroke. The American Journal of Cardiology. 80:4(3); 4D-10D. Atkinson, R. P.; & DeLemos, C. (2000). Acute Ischemic Stroke Management. Thrombosis Research. 98:3; 97-111. Koroshetz, W. J.; & Moskowitz, M. A. (1996). Emerging treatments for stroke in humans. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences. 17:6 (Jun); 227-233. Lees, K.R. (1991). Therapeutic interventions in acute stroke. Brit J Clin Pharmacol. 34; 486-493. Rothman, S.M.; & Olney, J.W. (1986). Glutamate and the pathophysiology of Hypoxic-Ischemic brain damage. Ann Neurol. 19; 105-111. For information Stroke: http://www.caregiver.org/factsheets/stroke.html
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Ischemic Stroke is caused due to a blood clot in an area of the brain, leading to loss of neural function if last for more than 24 hours. In the United States, ischemic stroke affects 2.7% of men and 2.5% of women of age range 18 years and older. In addition, it has reported that annually about 610,000 and 185,000 of new strokes and recurrent strokes cases occur in US1. Moreover, it has reported that patients who have suffered from a stroke have more chances of recurrent stroke, Myocardial infarction, and death from vascular causes2. One of the risk factor of ischemic stroke is formation of plaque in the blood vessels causing blood clot3. Several randomized trials have also reported that antiplatelet medications are efficient in preventing recurrences of stroke in patients who had an incident of ischemic stroke. Antiplatelet medications for preventing recurrences of stroke are aspirin, combination of aspirin and extended-release dipyridamole, and clopidogrel alone4. It ha...
The human body is an amazing machine, we have cells, tissues, organs and organ system that come together to create the human race. Each system plays a key role in our bodies mechanism. Without each systems our bodies would not function properly, but what happens when one of these system fails? The Cardiovascular system components are blood, blood vessels and the heart. The hearts function is to pump blood to all the major organs and tissues (Circulatory). It’s also important to be aware of the derivation that our bodies may encounter, for example a stroke. In this passage I discuss different types of strokes, what are the signs and symptoms and after care for this disorder of the cardiovascular system.
It goes without saying that everyone’s health is important and should be taken care carefully. Everyone has heard of strokes before but many people do not really know its meaning, types, and the number of individuals of that dies due to this issue. According to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2015), strokes kills an average of 130,000 people a year and it is one of the most common deaths that happen in the United States. An average of 800,000 of people die from cardiovascular disease and strokes and it is also a reason of long-term disability (Centers of Disease Control and Prevention, 2015). Strokes, which can also be called cerebrovascular accident or CVA happen when the blood supply to the brain is interrupted or the blood vessel going towards the brain burst. Then part of the brain dies or become seriously injured because the brain cells do not receive oxygen and they eventually die. People’s lifestyle may also impact seriously on their health and increase the possibility of having a stroke. Some of the risk that can severely increase the cause of stroke would be high blood pressure, heart disease, diabetes, cigarette smoking, as well as strokes that
In both hemorrhagic and ischemic strokes, blood vessels are compromised, thus blood flow is unable to reach the brain. The restriction of cerebral blood flow results in an insufficient amount of nutrients, such as oxygen and glucose, which are being delivered to the brain. This then deters metabolic and functional processes (Boss, 2010). With the decrease of cerebral blood flow, an “ischemic cascade” is initiated within the cell (Durukan & Tatlisumak, 2007, p. 186). Due to the depleted amount of oxygen and glucose being transported to brain tissue, ATP must be anaerobically produced until oxygen can be supplied. If oxygen and glucose are not supplied in time, ATP stops being made, membrane receptors lose function, glutamate is released and a buildup of intracellular calcium, sodium, and chloride levels results (Boss, 2010). Overtime, if oxygen supply is still unsubstantial, acidosis occurs, which causes free radical formation, mitocho...
Panagos, P. (2008). The approach to optimising stroke care. The American Journal of Emergency Medicine, 26, 808−816. doi:10.1016/j.aejm.2007.11.014
The electoral college is a system that uses the voice of the states in order to give a presidential running candidate access to the white house. The electoral college should not be abolished because it provides order, equality, and it prevents mistakes being made in order to choose the right candidate. There is so much evidence in history to prove that the electoral college is a well devised system in order to give power to the more qualified individual. The electoral college is an important system formed by the framer of the constitutional in order to keep many things properly aligned, it provides a voice to those who would otherwise be taken for granted, and it limits what “bigger” powers can do in order to avoid tyranny.
According to the American Heart Association / American Stroke Association’s About Stroke (2014) “stroke is the number four cause of death and the leading cause of adult disability in the United States” (para.1). On average, a stroke happens every 40 seconds in the United States (Impact of Stroke, para. 1) About 4% to 17% of all patients with stroke experience symptom onset while hospitalized (Cumbler, et al., 2014). This amounts to about 35,000-75,000 in-hospital strokes in the United States annually.
The Stroke Foundation developed the “Clinical Guidelines for Stroke Management” (2010) to provide evidence-based recommendations for the management of stroke during all phases of recovery and to improve the delivery of care. Therefore, if an intervention or strategy is deemed effective through evidence, it has been recommended in the guidelines, alongside a grading to reflect the reliability of the evidence and the importance of the intervention or strategy. The guidelines are primarily intended for use by policy makers and health care professionals who manage people with stroke in order to improve the quality and effectiveness of the care provided. However, it is essential to not only provide information to the health professionals, but also to the community to prevent or reduce the impact of a stroke. The Stroke Foundation aimed to raise awareness of the 4 common signs of stroke, as well as the impact time has on a person having a stroke in terms of their treatment path and recovery, through their “Think F.A.S.T Act FAST” campaign. The pneumonic F.A.S.T teaches people that signs of face or arm weakness and speech difficulties are stroke signs and prompts them that it is time to act quickly to get medical assistance. Health professionals are also encouraged to inform their patients, friends and relatives of the campaign to prevent the impact of
Stroke is a commonly known disease that is often fatal. This cellular disease occurs when blood flow to the brain is interrupted by either a blood clot halting the progress of blood cells in an artery, called an Ischemic stroke, or a blood vessel in the brain bursting or leaking causing internal bleeding in the brain, called a hemorrhagic stroke. When this happens, brain cells are deprived of oxygen and nutrients because the blood cells carrying these essential things are stopped, causing them to die. When the cells in the brain die, sensation or movement in a limb might be cut off and may limit an organism’s abilities. A person with stroke is affected depending on where in the brain the stroke occurs. In other words, symptoms of a stroke
Debbie Summers, M. R., Anne Leonard, M. R.-C., Deidre Wentworth, M. R., Jeffrey L. Saver, M. F., Jo Simpson, B. R., Judith A. Spilker, B. R., . . . Pamela H. Mitchell, P. R. (2009). http://stroke.ahajournals.org/content/40/8/2911.full. Retrieved from AHA journals-Comprehensive Overview of Nursing and Interdisciplinary Care of the Acute Ischemic Stroke Patient: http://stroke.ahajournals.org/content/40/8/2911.full
Strokes have been one of the leading causes of disabilities in humans (Lau & Chitussi & Elliot & Giannone & McMahon & Sibley & Tee & Matthews & Salbach, 2016). Stroke is the damage to the brain when the blood supply is interrupted resulting in a clotting (Gupta, 2014). Strokes have an abundance of effects, but there are several types of treatments and rehabilitation that are now available and helping to reduce the post stroke deaths (Gregory & Galloway, 2017; Gupta, 2014).
The term cerebrovascular accident (CVA), or stroke, is a medical emergency with a sudden onset that can have devastating effects (Bansal, Pelino, Pizzimwnti, 2015). A stroke occurs when blood flow to the brain is interrupted (ischemia), or when a cerebral vessel ruptures and causes blood to bleed into the brain (hemorrhage). Both ischemia and hemorrhage cause brain cell death by depriving the brain of needed oxygen and nutrients. Damaged brain cells die and abilities controlled by that area of the brain are lost (Cook, Clements, 2011). The World Health Organization defines stroke as “Rapidly developing clinical signs of focal or global disturbances of cerebral function lasting more than 24 hours with
When it comes to the topic of stereotypes, most of us will readily agree that Minority are treated crudely because of stereotypes. Someone might stereotype another person to maintain a certain idea of a minority. stereotypes are usually characterize a minority groups by color or language. There are also many stereotypes like, gender, racial, and mental stereotypes. But, Some people believe that stereotypes don't harm minorities in any way. This agreement usually never ends because, there is always the question how are do stereotypes treat minority crudely? This question will always be controversial. Although that some people argue minorities are not treated differently because of stereotypes, stereotypes affect minorities through constant