Understanding Morphine

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Morphine is the most important pharmacologically active ingredient of opium, the resin obtained from the dried juice of the opium poppy. More than 200 years ago morphine was established in clinical practice. It is the first model of opioid medicine, whose analgesic and satisfying influences are mediated by activating opioid receptors which are obtained basically within the central nervous system (CNS). World Health Organization’s (WHO) proposed that morphine continues to be the strong opioid of selection for treating moderate to severe cancer pain patient. Pharmacology Endorphins, enkephalins, dynorphins are endogenous opioids. Morphine performs to imitate endorphins which are responsible for reducing pain, producing sleepiness and feelings of pleasure. Morphine is a sample of narcotic medicine and is the standard against that all other opioids are examined. It interacts principally with the μ-opioid receptor. These μ-combining places are discretely dispersed in the brain and some cortical areas. They are also located on the terminal axons of primary afferents within lamina I and II of the spinal cord and in the spinal nucleus of the trigeminal nerve.[24]Morphine is a phenanthrene alkaloid opioid receptor agonist. ‘’It is a weak base with a PKa 7.9 at physiological PH, 76% of its molecules are ionized’’ and it is comparatively water soluble and poorly lipid soluble. The main effect of morphine is combing to and activating the μ-opioid receptors in the CNS. The basic pharmacological effect of morphine applies in clinical setting is on the (CNS) and gastrointestinal tract (GIT). It has two main actions in its therapeutic effect which are analgesia and sedation. Morphine is also a κ and δ-opioid receptor agonist, κ-opioids actio... ... middle of paper ... ...ower onset of action than NR modulations. There are two times a day preparations with an initial of action of 1-2h and reaching peak drug intensity at 4h. The once a day MR preparation has slower initial of action and reach peak levels at 8.5h. There are many beneficial effects of morphine is due to reduced perception of pain, decreased reaction to pain and increased pain tolerance. In contrast, the most widely recognized side effects are sedation, respiratory depression and constipation as well as nausea and vomiting, while there are others common such as tolerance, physical and psychological dependence. They can be reduced all these adverse effects of morphine by five possible methods which are decreasing the dose, alteration the route of administration and using some adjuvant drugs as well as opioid rotation and symptomatic management of the adverse effects.

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