Multiculturalism has been an integral part of Canada since its adoption by the Trudeau government in 1971 and its formal implementation through The Canadian Multiculturalism Act in 1988 (Burnett and Dreidger, 2014). Multiculturalism has allowed for Canada to engage in a complex social, political, and economic experiment that has heavily informed policy and decision making. In this essay I shall argue that multiculturalism in it’s current form is a failed project. The noble goals of positive social, economic, and educational development as well as the preservation of culture and identity have shifted. The focus of market strategy in multicultural policy has diluted the main tenets of multiculturalism.
Quebec was not always treated fairly nor where they given many rights in regards t... ... middle of paper ... ... A successful strategy in the accommodation of national minorities within a liberal democracy could be founded upon mutual trust, recognition and sound financial arrangements. However, a certain degree of tension between central and regional institutions may remain as a constant threat in this complex relationship since they entertain opposing aims. The federal governments determination to protect its territorial integrity, and its will to foster a single national identity among its citizens clashes with Quebec’s wish to be recognized as a separate nation and decide upon its political destiny and to foster its distinct identity (Guibernau pg.72). Moreover, if the ROC and the federal government can come to an agreement on terms that satisfy the majority and an identity that encompasses the heart of a country; Canada will continue to exist with or without Quebec.
Canada Lacks A Real National Identity I believe that Canada lacks a real national identity. Canadians tend to identify with community and region rather than the nation. Because Canada has such a great cultural diversity the Canadian identity is shaped by our values and attitudes as they have emerged from our history and geography. Bilingualism and multiculturalism are very important to the Canadian identity. They both strengthen and challenge Canadian identity.
Following this, it will be examined the benefits and drawbacks of strict party discipline. With this setup, it will be shown the importance of party discipline and the effects it causes. In an attempt to narrow the focus, politics at the national level will be focused on and any reference to legislatures or other institutions should be viewed nationally unless otherwise noted. Before an in depth look at how party discipline influences Canada can happen though, its history and definition must be examined. Whether a country has a parliamentary or presidential system, whether it is democratic or autocratic, political parties exist and flourish all over the world.
When the United States flexes their muscles, claws at our existence, or when we are sceptical of their policies, we become nationalists seeking to protect our national interest. A Canadian nationalist is someone like Pierre Trudeau and Brian Mulroney, who advances, protects and promotes our national interest by standing up against the Americans. Our relationship is one of cooperation and conflict, imitation and competition, and in constant need of readjustment. Our wish to compete with and need to cooperate is a very Canadian contradiction. Canada between the years of 1868-1993 was shaped by a period contradiction; Canadians during this period were nationalists and contientialists at the same time.
National Identity Crisis in Margaret Atwood’s Through the One-Way Mirror National identity is one of the most important factors in maintaining a country. It defines one’s nation, culture and everything associated with that country. When it comes to Canada, however, it seems that our national identity has been lost. In Margaret Atwood’s essay “Through the One-Way Mirror,” she effectively questions Canada’s national identity through symbolism and ambiguity. At first glance, this essay seems to be about American dominance in the Canadian-American relationship with its numerous powerful metaphors and extensive use of symbolism.
4.3. Ethnic Cleavages Scholars largely debate cultural diversity as a cause of decentralization. “The provincial governments are strong in Canada because Canadians have distinctive needs and interests that cannot be accommodated within a single national government, and also because of Canadians actually want strong provincial governments and a relatively weak federal one” (Stevenson, “Federalism and Intergovernmental Relations” 90). This argument was strategically counter argued by sociologist John Porter in The Vertical Mosaic. “Even if it were true, it would not necessarily explain the power exercised by provincial governments” (Stevenson, “Federalism and Intergovernmental Relations, 91).
Nationalism with Quebec is a prime example of how distinct regional cultures hinder Canada’s unity, as they want to separate from Canada, while still having the federal Canadian government financially support them. Western Alienation is also a prime political culture that is regionally distinct. This paper will prove how regionalism is a prominent feature of Canadian life, and affects the legislative institutions, especially the Senate, electoral system, and party system as well as the agendas of the political parties the most. This paper will examine the influence of regionalism on Canada’s legislative institutions and agendas of political part... ... middle of paper ... ...-PolicyBook_E.pdf>. Henderson, Ailsa.
Hugh Mellon argues that the prime minister of Canada is indeed too powerful. Mellon refers to the prime minister’s control over Canada a prime-ministerial government, where the prime minister encounters few constraints on the usage of his powers. Contrary to Mellon’s view, Paul Barker disagrees with the idea of a prime-ministerial government in Canada. Both perspectives bring up solid points, but the idea of a prime-ministerial government leading to too much power in the hands of the prime minister is an exaggeration. Canada is a country that is too large and complex to be dominated by a single individual.
It provides a base for development in a country that has become abundant in ethnic diversity and has consequently undergone policy changes to both reflect and maintain an all-encompassing society. This can be seen through the genealogy, history, and construction of the Royal Commission of Bilingualism and Biculturalism (RCBB) and its findings, which reflect a bilingual binary necessary for dynamic multicultural nation that is Canada. Eve Haque illustrates the genealogy of royal commissions through Foucault, who contends that it “operates on a field of entangled and confused parchments, on documents that have been scratched over and recopied many times” (Haque 19). This interwoven web demonstrates the intrinsic value in history through genealogy and how it affects commission work. According to Foucault it can be outlined by three main method elements: eventialization, decent and emergence (Haque 19).