In addition, in hyperglycemia, glucose is not taken up by the cells; therefore, the glucose remains in circulation in the blood. Another consequence of insulin depletion is the increase in the breakdown of fats in the body and fatty oxidation. This consequence of insulin depletion results in the overproduction of ketones and leads to ketosis. If left type I diabetes is left untreated, these consequences of insulin depletion may re... ... middle of paper ... ...s have the insulin gene. Furthermore, within the HLA locus are three classes of genes.
Type II, is where the body can’t make enough or properly use insulin, also known as non-insulin dependent. Other specific type of diabetes may have its origin from certain genetic syndromes, surgery, drugs, malnutrition inflection and other illness. The cause of this disease remains a mystery. Genetics, environmental factors, lack of exercise, plays an important role in the cause of diabetes. Diabetes can cause different types of problems depending on which types of diabetes they have.
A person’s lifestyle choices can greatly increase or decrease his/her chances of developing diabetes. Poor lifestyle choices can lead to increased levels of fat, which is dangerous because excess levels of fat makes it more difficult for one’s body to utilize insulin effectively. Low activity l... ... middle of paper ... ...iegel, Allen, and Elizabeth Nobel. “NIH research on obesity and type 2 diabetes: providing the scientific evidence base for actions to improve health.” nature.com. 2006.
Type 2 diabetes (non–insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus [NIDDM]) is a heterogeneous disorder. Patients with NIDDM have insulin resistance, and their beta cells lack the ability to overcome this resistance. Although this form of diabetes previously was uncommon in children, 20% or more of new patients with diabetes in childhood and adolescence now have NIDDM, a change associated with increased rates of obesity. Insulin is essential to process carbohydrate, fat, and protein. Insulin reduces blood glucose levels by allowing glucose to enter muscle cells and fat cells and by stimulating the conversion of glucose to glycogen as a carbohydrate store.
This hormone is responsible for maintaining an optimal glucose level in the blood. It allows the body cells to use glucose as a main energy source. Due to abnormal insulin metabolism, in a diabetic person, the body cells and tissues cannot make use of glucose from the blood, resulting in elevated blood glucose level or hyperglycemia. Over time, elevated blood glucose level in the bloodstream can lead to severe complications, such as disorders of the eyes, cardiovascular diseases, kidney damage and nerve destruction. In Type 1 diabetes, the pancreas is not able to produce sufficient amount of insulin as required for the body.
The disease, diabetes mellitus presents from complications of carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism. Many routes can contribute to the rise of the disease, beta cell dysfunction, insulin release mechanisms fail or tissue cells become insulin resistant from over exposure to high concentrations of glucose. This disorder can be diagnosed as an autoimmune disorder as well, resulting from the destruction of insulin producing β-cells. The chronic effects of such disease processes can lead to critical failures of major bodily systems, such as the kidneys, heart, nerves, and vascular system. Significant microvasuclar and macrovascular complications arise from chronic hyperglycemia caused by diabetes mellitus and will be the main focus of this essay.
Type 1 diabetes results from the autoimmune destruction of insulin producing beta cells located in the Pancreas. It is because of this destruction that Type 1 diabetes patients need to take shots of insulin for the remainder of their life in order to control the glucose in the body itself. Where as a patient with type 2 diabetes can have higher levels of blood sugar in the body, and can eventually level out without the aid of insulin. It should be said that in both cases the bodies lack of insulin production causes the body to be unable to convert the glucose to energy. When this occurs the body begins to burn fatty acids required for energy production which begins to produce ketones in the body which are r... ... middle of paper ... ... predisposing the patient to renal deficiency.
SECTION I Scientific Rationale for Selection of the Target A. Characterization of Target Diabetes Mellitus is a heterogeneous group of metabolic diseases characterized by the presence of excessive amounts of glucose and glucagon in the blood of diabetic patients. The most frequently cited reason for Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is either a lack of insulin secretion (DM Type I) and/or, more commonly, the resistance to insulin in the peripheral tissues, particularly muscle and adipose tissue (DM type II). Hence, insulin has long been a target for the treatment of DM. In DM Type I, intravenous or subcutaneous insulin injection has often been the norm.
Diabetes is a disease known by most of the people which occurs when the blood sugar level is exceptionally high compared to normal level. The essay will focus more on diabetes type 1 by which the production of insulin in the pancreas is inhibited because the β-cells in the pancreas are destroyed by the immune system (Dr Ananya Mandal). The unusually high blood sugar level can cause adverse effects on the human body. The kidney eventually will be damaged by the high concentration of glucose in the blood. This is a result of the extra work for the glomerulus to filter the high sugar level in the blood, causing the glomerulus to become leaky (American Diabetes Association, 2013).
This is a discussion of research article listed at end of paper When muscle is damaged, there is a general resistance to insulin. The physiological stress that is associated with damaged muscle impairs how insulin stimulates IRS-1, PI 3-kinase, and Akt-kinase. This presumably leads to less glucose absorption. Previous studies have shown that there has been temporary insulin resistance due to the physiological stress associated with muscle damage. However, the molecular mechanisms by which physiological stress induces insulin resistance is not known.