Two Types Of Negotiation

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Negotiation is an integral part of human existence and interpersonal relationships. People negotiate all the time. Friends negotiate where to have dinner. Children negotiate to decide which television programme to watch. Organisations negotiate to purchase materials and to sell their products. Lawyers negotiate to settle legal claims before they go to court. Negotiation occurs between spouses, parents and children, managers and staff, employers and employees, professionals and clients, within and between organisations and between agencies and the public. The word "negotiation" is from the Latin expression, "negotiatus", past participle of negotiare which means "to carry on business". There are numerous definitions of negotiation; Gulliver…show more content…
Chikwe (2011) posited that there are two types of negotiation. The positional negotiation and the collaborative negotiation. The first type of negotiation is based on the aggressive pursuit of interest by parties, and is typically adversarial and competitive. Parties make demands that are inconsiderate of the interest and needs of others, and this makes it difficult for this interest to be met. Parties may also perceive themselves to be in competition. The desire will be to win, instead of working towards a mutually beneficial outcome. Thus, the demands of one party can be met only to the detriment of the other. Parties tend to stubbornly adhere to their positions and one side seems to dominate the negotiation. Collaborative or constructive negotiation, on the other hand, is a process where parties try to educate each other about their needs and solve their problems in ways that the interests and fears of both or all parties are met. The process is collaborative in principle and the emphasis is on mutual understanding and feeling, all aimed at building a sustainable relationship. Negotiation seems to have universal application as a principle of conflict management based on dialogue (Chikwe, 2011; Balogun,
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