Two Key Perspectives Of Physical Development: Arnold Lucius Gesell

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Physical Development Physical Development carries two key perspectives, nature and nurture. Both perspectives can be supported in many mays. Arnold Lucius Gesell was an American psychologist and paediatrician and professor at Yale University, known for his research and contributions in the field of child development. Gessell was one of the first theorists to identify developmental milestones – he called them ‘Gessell developmental schedules’. He developed the maturational theory, which suggests that children’s development is due to their biological makeup and that environment has only a small influence. His research led him to three principles of physical development which are:- • Sequence – Gessell suggested that all physical development…show more content…
Once control has been gained of this part of the body, babies will then gain control of other parts of the body moving downwards (i.e. arms then legs etc) • Gross motor skills moving onto fine motor skills – Gessell suggested that it made sense for children to master control of their whole arm movements before they would be able to control their fine movements i.e. fingers (holding a pencil etc) Friedrich Froebel was a German scholar born in 1782 who did a lot of work on child’s play and how children use nature in their development. Although one of the early theorists (1782–1852), Froebel’s theories are still relevant today. He stressed the importance of play and recognised that the outdoor environment is vital to children’s learning and development. Each child should be allowed the time and space to play and develop through play activities. Maria Montessori was born in Italy in 1870 and influenced childcare massively in the 20th century. Montessori believed that children learn best through using their hands. She felt that one of the main factors that contributed to the child’s development was the ‘prepared’ environment. Children learn through exploration and the adult’s role is to create an environment where they can do…show more content…
Steiner identified three essential developmental ages of childhood, the first being 0–7 years, which he considered an important stage, sees the development of the physical body. Children at this stage live in a dreamy consciousness connecting them to the spirit worlds, and they are mainly characterized by their will. The second stage begins at age 7. The loss of baby teeth marks the beginning of this stage. Children of this age are mainly ruled by their emotions. The third stage begins at age 14. The transition to this stage is signalled by puberty. Only after entering this stage are children able to think rationally. He believed that children learn through imitation and doing. Steiner believed that the environment was central to a child’s learning and development. Susan Isaacs was a Lancashire-born educational psychologist and psychoanalyst. She published studies on the intellectual and social development of children and promoted the nursery school movement. Isaacs stressed the importance of children’s play in their development and learning. She discouraged desk-based learning and advocated that children should have space and freedom to
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