The purpose of this research was to describe and understand Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and the most effective treatment options that are available today. ADHD is a mental health disorder that affects 3-9% of the population in ways that, if left untreated, can wreak havoc on the mind of the sufferer. It makes concentration difficult, large tasks seem insurmountable, and causes impulsive and hyperactive tendencies. Fortunately, research and experiments have led to new and effective treatments to help those who suffer from this disorder (Dupaul 8). This research examined journal articles and internet sources on the topic to help unlock the complexities of the disorder through scientific research. It also was a way to separate the myths of the disorder from the truths, while discovering the causes, diagnosis methods, and best treatment alternatives to battle this prevalent disorder.
Webb, James T.. Misdiagnosis and dual diagnoses of gifted children and adults: ADHD, bipolar, OCD, Asperger's, depression, and other disorders. Scottsdale, Ariz.: Great Potential Press, 2005. Print.
Children suffering from concentration issues embody a very assorted population that may display a very large range of symptom severity and a wide scale of diagnoses that can go along with each symptom. Attention disorders are around six times more likely to affect males versus females. Around half of the children that have symptoms of hyperactivity and attention issues carry those symptoms into adulthood. Approximately 3-5 % of children that are of school age and are affected and these disorders are some of the least understood. “Labels for these problems have included minimal brain dysfunction (MBD), hyperkinesis, hyperactivity, attention deficit disorder (ADD), attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity (ADDH), and presently, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this review, AD often will be used as a generic t...
Recent media coverage might lead one to believe that ADHD is something new, a nineties thing, some vogue malady that somehow explains our disaffected modern youth. Yet the hyperactive child has always been around. He was class clown, the kid in the back row who never shut up. He was the kid whom the teacher constantly sent out of the room or to the office. In the past, these were the children...
Schwarz Alan and Cohen Sarah. “More diagnosis of ADHD causing concerns.” The New York Times 31 March 2013. Print.
...ouglas A. (2002). What's Wrong with Doug? The Academic Struggles of a Gifted Student with ADHD from Preschool to College. Gifted Child Today, 25, 48-59 http://search.epnet.com/direct.asp?an=EJ657356&db=eric
ADHD is a disorder that has been on the rise for several years now. The disorder is one that can cause many impairments to a child’s attention span, making it difficult to concentrate and to keep on task, especially on schoolwork. (Graham, 2007) The statistics have been growing ...
The ADHD Rating Scale-IV is designed to be used with children ages 5 to 18 and consists of scales for the Home and School. The Home version is also available in Spanish. The scales are rated according to symptom frequency on a 4-point scale of 9 to 3 (never or rarely) to (very often) and each has 18 items. The checklists are designed to be completed by parents and teachers who have observed the child for six months. Divided across four age groups, the scores are reported as percentile ranks separately for boys and girls. The breakdown of age groups is from 5-7, 8-10, 11-13, and 14-18 for both the Home and School version. The rating scales produce three scores: Inattention (IA), Hyperactivity-Impulsivity (HI), and total. According to Lindskog (1998), “On both forms, the Inattention scale consists of the 9 odd-numbered items, and the Hyperactivity-Impulsivity scale consists of the 9 even-numbered items, which are alternated to reduce response bias.” It is notable that the reviewer states the ADHD Rating Scale-IV is not intended to be used alone in ADHD diagnosis, but rather should be used with other more comprehensive sources such as diagnostic interviews, behavioral observations, and behavior ratings (Lindskog, 1998).
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, commonly referred to as ADHD, poses serious implications for affected individuals and educators. Given a large increase in diagnosis over the past thirty years, professionals and the general public alike are concerned that ADHD is often misdiagnosed. A thorough examination of scientific evidence along with possible assumptions is necessary in determining the legitimacy of these claims. The etiology, the use of drug based treatment, and the effectiveness of alternative treatments for ADHD are all important factors in the consideration of this controversy.
ADHD (attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder). (2004). In The concise Corsini encyclopedia of psychology and behavioral science. Retrieved from http://library.gcu.edu:2048/login?qurl=http%3A%2F%2Fsearch.credoreference.com.library.gcu.edu%3A2048%2Fcontent%2Fentry%2Fwileypsych%2Fadhd_attention_deficit_hyperactivity_disorder%2F0
Attention Hyperactive- impulsive Deficit Disorder, or also known as ADHD, is under the category of IDEA, which is the Other Health Impairments. It is considered as one of the most common childhood mental disorder, affecting more than one in every twenty children (Shaw, 2008). Moreover, this condition can continue through adolescence and adulthood. IDEA defines it as a neurobiological-based developmental disorder in children and adults with a persistent pattern of problems in the areas of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity that is more frequent and severe than is typically observed in individuals at a comparable level of development. DSM IV defined ADHD as same as IDEA, however, it made clear that some symptoms like hyperactivity-impulsivity or inattentiveness must shown before onset seven years old and some impairments of it should be present at least at two settings to rule out the possibility that the behaviour is just a reaction to a certain teacher and parental control. Moreover, it said that there must be a clear evidence of interference with developmentally appropriate social, academic or occupational functioning. Nonetheless, persons with Schizophrenia, Pervasive Developmental Disorder or any Psychotic Disorders and mental conditions are cannot be accounted of having ADHD.
Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), once called hyperkinesis or minimal brain dysfunction, is one of the most common mental disorders among children. (Elia, Ambrosini, Rapoport, 1999) It affects 3 to 5 percent of all children, with approximately 60% to 80% of these children experiencing persistence of symptoms into adolescence and adulthood, causing a lifetime of frustrated dreams and emotional pain. There are two types of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: an inattentive type and a combined type. The symptoms of ADHD can be classified into three categories: inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. This behaviour stops ADHD sufferers from focussing deliberately on organising and completing a specific task that they may not enjoy, learning new skills or information is proved to be impossible. An example of such behaviour is recognised by the report written by the National Institute of Mental Health where one of the subjects under study was unable to pass schooling examinations due to her inattentive behaviour. Such behaviour can damage the person's relationships with others in addition to disrupting their daily life, consuming energy, and diminishing self-esteem. (National Institute of Mental Health 1999) There are also secondary symptoms which are associated with ADHD, such as learning disorders, anxiety, depression and other mood disorders, tic disorders, and conduct disorders. (Spencer, Biederman, and Wilens 1999 in Monastra V, Monastra D, George, 2002)
Sciutto MJ, Eisenberg M. Evaluating the evidence for and against the overdiagnosis of ADHD. J Atten Disord. 2007;11:106-113.
Most people have some idea of learning disabilities, typically dyslexia, and most people know about giftedness, or “geniuses”. The public tends to dissociate the two, thinking that brilliant people never really have trouble learning and that people with learning disabilities have lower intellectual ability. While these can be true to an extent, they are stereotypes, pure and simple. A learning disability and giftedness can most definitely exist in the same individual. These individuals are called twice-exceptional, or 2e, meaning that they have two exceptionalities: giftedness and a learning disability . 2e individuals are quite unique and may require different learning strategies from their peers with only one exceptionality. Different social
The existence and diagnosis of ADHD has subjective nature because, as our book says, “No valid, independent test for ADHD exists.” The diagnosis for ADHD is quantified by doctors and psychiatrists who rely upon the observations and opinions of the people who care for the child being “evaluated”. Observations and opinions themselves are subjective because each person inevitably has their own personal biases and unique viewpoints which will lead them to define a child’s characteristics or behaviors in a certain way.