Tuberculosis Essay

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Introduction Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease of public health importance globally that is spread by inhalation of organisms known as mycobacterium tuberculosis and commonly affects the lungs. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is said to affect most of the world’s population. According to the 2013 report on global tuberculosis control published by the WHO, an estimated 8.6 million people developed TB and 1.3 million died from the disease. Of these, 320 000 deaths were among HIV-positive people, mostly from sub-Saharan Africa. There are also rising cases of multidrug resistant TB (MDR TB) cases reported worldwide. Multidrug resistant tuberculosis is a form of tuberculosis caused by bacteria that is resistant to at least isoniazid and rifampicin, the two most potent first line anti TB drugs. The 2013 global TB report showed that 29% of cases of MDR TB were in South East Asia and 27% in sub-Saharan Africa. Estimates also showed that 450,000 people developed MDR-TB, with 170,000 deaths. (WHO, Global tuberculosis report , 2013) MDR‐TB is spread by either transmission from one patient to another, ingestion of poor quality drugs for treatment of initial cases of TB, poor adherence in a patient who had a sensitive strain of TB and also in patients who may have primary resistance to one of the anti TB drugs. Retreatment cases are patients who were previously treated for tuberculosis but require treatment for a new episode of smear positive TB due to defaulting on drugs or if they fail on the first line course of anti TB drugs. Though TB is very wide spread, it is also very curable if patients are given the appropriate support while on treatment to be able to adhere to drugs which also have a multitude of serious but manageable side... ... middle of paper ... ...ssential in the diagnosis of MDR-TB; paying for laboratory services, wages for employees as well as other concomitant medications and administrative costs.  Operational: The implementation of the suggested DOTS strategy normally requires many staffs both in the community to assist patients from there and also at the clinic and since it’s not a specialised TB clinic, the number of staff would be a limitation. Also, carrying out specialized culture results as well as the drug susceptibility testing requires staffs that are well trained and this may be a constraint as they may not be available. Staffs to offer comprehensive TB care may not be available as this is not a specialized TB clinic. Once these challenges are overcome, the goals of TB control can be achieved i.e. reduction in morbidity, mortality, disease transmission and improvement of the quality of life.

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