Proto-oncogenes are those genes that control normal but essential cell processes that keep cell growth and death in check. Two important categories are apoptosis genes, which regulate cell death, and tumor suppressor genes, which decrease cell propagation 1 . If these genes were mutated to the point where they cannot produce a functioning protein, cell division would continue far past what it was supposed to and unhealthy cells would be allowed to live and continue to multiply. This is what creates a malignant tumor. Certain conditions in the body can also promote the growth of cancer cells.
For most, the primary fears associated with cancer are connected to the effects of treatments. If the patient is diagnosed when the cancer is still in the early stages, more than likely surgery is the appropriate treatment. However if the cancer has developed into an advanced stage, a more drastic treatment is necessary. What exactly is Chemotherapy and why would it also kill “good” cells? Cancer could be described as the disease that sends cells out of control, rapidly multiplying the cells, until it harms the body.
The Monoclonal Antibody are directed to attach to a specific part of the cancer, marking the cancer cell as harmful and making it easy for the immune system to identify it and destroy it. Scientists are looking to to find out the reason lymphocytes turn into cancer, why they grow fast or live longer then they should. Once this is understood the focus will be on finding a cure for the disease. There are new drugs being tested on patients and studies are being done on how to improve steam cell transplant, and new drugs are being tested. A cure may be out of reach for time being but treatments and research are advancing every
These oncogenes cause cancer because they do not allow the cells to self destruct or become epistatic. There have been several research projects which have been testing epistatis. Transfecting DNA To perform the experiments for this re... ... middle of paper ... ...wth of both normal and malignant cells. The limited research that has been performed using these cells has yielded contradictory results: some results say that the alpha5beta1 integrins destroy cancer cells, other results have shown that cell division and other necessary cell functions have been encouraged by the integrin. But the research has predominantly shown that the results of the expression of alpha5beta1 integrins yield beneficial results in terms of cancer tumor reduction.
But recent studies have shown that 90% of patients with metastatic carcinomas experience some type of resistance, because these chemotherapy agents essentially induce the overexpression of the WNT16B protein in PSC27 cells that are located in surrounding tumor areas. Once this expression has occurred significantly, it reduces the overall competency of chemotherapy agents and results in its ineffectiveness. This is a huge problem for the patient and those who make these chemotherapy agents. To test for the expression of the WNT16B protein, an RT-PCR (Reverse-Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction) analysis will be conducted for LNCaP and PC-3 cells treated with Mitozantrone, Docetaxel and Hydrogen peroxide before and after treatment process. Introduction Current research has profoundly indicated that there are negative implications associated with the employment of chemotherapy agents among prostate cancer patients.
Conclusion Targeted radionuclide is among the important technological developments in the field of radiotherapy. It can be used as a solo procedure over the external radiation exposure and chemotherapy, though they can be used in combination if this assures optimal results. This procedure is highly advantageous over the conventional methods and should be considered as the choice procedure, especially in bone metastatic tumors. Among its main applications is its use in control of thyroid cancer, which shows a huge decreases in thyroid cancer rate and improve patient’s life style. Radionuclide therapy also shows its effect in pain palliative of bone metastasis.
The number of genes varies by different tumors and locations in the body. Invasive cancer begins when the genetic changes allow the tumor to invade and take over certain tissues, and shed cells into the blood (lymph). When this occurs, the mass is then considered to be malignant. The rene... ... middle of paper ... ...s- which we would now consider immunotherapies because they aimed to attack disease with the body’s own defenses- brought about complete tumor regressions in some individuals. But they were not broadly accepted, because the results were unpredictable (What You Need To Know About Cancer, 101).
Invasion assays such as a wound healing assay can be used to measure changes in metastatic potential. E. Relevance: Microtubules have long been targeted for treatment of primary tumors in breast cancer with paclitaxel and similar drugs that stabilize microtubules during mitosis and prevent cell division. However, these microtubule disrupting drugs have not been shown to be effective in the prevention of metastasis. By elucidating the mechanism by which aberrant microtubule nucleation occurs and the proteins involved, new molecular markers can be revealed to create new therapeutics for metastatic breast cancer.
Radiation is most commonly used to treat localized cancers as opposed to cancer that has spread throughout the body. The goal of radiation therapy is to kill cancer cells or at least limit their ability to grow and divide by damaging their genetic material. Like chemotherapy, radiation therapy is not perfectly precise in its targeting of cancer cells, and some normal, healthy cells can also become damaged. There is also surgery which the surgeons who specialize in tumor
There is also a vaccine therapy, which helps stimulate the patients immune system to help fight off lymphatic cancer. These treatments are still experimental and very expensive. In patients who have reoccurring lymphoma, higher doses of chemotherapy or radiation may be necessary in an attempt to kill the cancerous cells. These treatments also destroy the blood producing cells in the patient’s bone marrow. This sometimes requires a bone marrow transplant.