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The plague also recurred in the late 19th and early 20th centuries in huge pandemics in Asia, and continues to be a threat today. The agent of plague, the bacterium bacillus Yersinia pestis, is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected fleas. Yersinia pestis is carried in the circulatory systems of chipmunks, prairie dogs, ground squirrels, mice, and other mammals. The plague is spread among humans by the inhalation of coughs of plague pneumonia. Although it is tempting to dismiss this pathogen as only active in outbreaks like the Black Death, and despite that the medical community found solutions to plague, plague continues to threaten those who live in areas of poor housing and sanitati... ... middle of paper ... ...f Person-to-Person Transmission of Pneumonic Plague.” Healthcare Epidemiology.
Yersinia pestis - Bacteria Virulence and Symptoms Yersinia pestis appeared fairly early in history and is still prevailing today. Humans have come in contact with this bacterium in massive outbreaks throughout history, including the most famous Black Death of the 14th century. From the lack of knowledge of the bacteria and its ability to infect populations rapidly, the human race has suffered immensely. The bacterium is specialized with specific plasmids, Yersinia outer proteins as well as other toxins that it uses to disrupt the body's immune response. Through this, Yersinia pestis avoids harm and effectively infects the circulatory system of its host causing three forms of the plague: Bubonic, Pneumonic and Septicemic.
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Other Pasteurella bacillus cause diseases such as tuberculosis. How is the disease transmitted? Plague is caused by an infection with Yersian pestis, which is a bacterium carried by rodents and transmitted by fleas found in parts of Asia, Africa, and North and South America. The Oriental Rat flea (Xenopsylla cheopis) is the most efficient carrier of plague, but other species of fleas (ex. Nosopsyllus fasciatus, Xenopsylla brasiliensis, Pulex irritaus) can also pass the disease on to humans.
(2004, November). Streptococcal Infections. Department of Health. July 28, 2005. www.health.state.ny.us/nysdoh/communicable_diseases/en/gas.htm ?Streptococcus Group A Infections.? Excerpt from Streptococcus Group A Infections.
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Anderson, Burt, Friedman, Herman, and Maaro Bendinelli. Springer: 2006. Kopp, Elizabeth, and Medzhitov, Ruslan. “A Plague on Host Defense.” The Journal of Experimental Medicine. .