Some people get them several times a month, while others experience them much less often. Lastly, migraines are vascular headaches and some researchers believe that migraines occur when there are abnormal changes in the brain. And when these changes occur, inflammation causes the blood vessels to swell and press on nerves, which can result in pain. (http://www.migrainetrust.org). Although much about the cause of migraines isn't understood, r... ... middle of paper ... ...raines occur in four phrases.
Post Concussion Syndrome Post-concussion syndrome is a complex disorder with symptoms can consist of headaches, dizziness, fatigue, and irritability that can last as little as a week and up to months after a head injury. The causes can be a traumatic blow to the head or neck injuries in which the patient does not have to lose consciousness. The effect of being injured can do permanent damaged to the brain and nervous system. Dealing with Post-concussion syndrome not only can have a physical effect, but a psychological one as well (Mayo clinic page 2). The cause of Post-concussion is still a mystery.
The symptoms depend on the location of the demyelination and the severity of the damage (NMSS, 2014). The first symptoms can range anywhere from muscle spasms, vision loss, balance problems, incontinence, tremors or even depression (MSF, 2009). Symptoms can also start strong, and not appear for distant periods of time, or happen quickly all at once. The symptoms depend on if the location of the damage is in sensory neurons, neurons, or the cerebellum. Sensory neurons are neurons that bring pain and sensations into the body, while the motor neurons take out actions and movements (MSF, 2009).
Pain can be an extremely powerful input to the nervous system with varying effects that could lay dormant for many years, stored in long-term memory. Several questions that could be posed concerning pain and long term memory involve the I-function. Can the I-function be turned off during a painful experience, but still be stored in long-term memory, able to be recalled later such as under hypnosis? Could pain cause a separation of the I-function from the physical self or a loss of ones sense of self? Many examples of pain can be quickly imagined and recalled from long or short-term memory.
To adequately do this I first need to explain what causes pain, state what the medical profession defines as pain, and describe how untreated pain can affect an individual. Pain is caused by a stimulation of the sensory nerve endings from a harmful source or stimuli, with inflammation being the primary cause (Harris, Nagy, & Vardaxis, 2006). Symptoms can range from mild to severe, and are categorised as acute or chronic in nature (Harris et al., 2006). Acute pain begins suddenly and tends to be severe, usually lasting less than 6 months in duration (Mac Lellan, 2006). While chronic pain is prolonged persistent pain that last longer then a period of 3-6 months (Mac Lellan, 2006).
Chronic pain is continuous pain that persists for a longer period of time and can last up to a lifetime. This type of pain causes the patient permanent discomfort and can severely affect the everyday lifestyle of the sufferer. Arthritis and back pain are common types of chronic pain1,2. The feeling of pain is caused when damaged tissue stimulates the release of messenger chemicals called neurotransmitters which in turn stimulate the nerve endings and electrical impulses are sent to the brain12. The body has its own mechanisms for relievin... ... middle of paper ... ...ings, John Wiley and Sons Inc, New York, 1998, third edition.
Pain is a protective mechanism essential to survival. There are three important claims here: One is that pain is actually a perception. The second, is the brain mediates the suppression of pain through a "gate" in the spinal cord. Lastly, since pain is a perception, the mind may decide the degree to which the "gate" is open, which therefore influences to amount of pain reaching the brain. Recent research provides evidence that certain brain structures mediate the spinal cord gate.
As discussed previously, there are several types of pain. For instance, Taverner (2014) defines neuropathic pain “as a complex type of pain initiated or caused by a primary lesion or dysfunction in the nervous system” (p. 442). Due to the nerve damage, the synaptic transmission enables a reduction in the pain threshold and therefore amplifies the pain response and sensitivity (Taverner, 2014). According to Taverner (2014) few patients experience short durations of neuropathic pain and may even gain a full recover. However, most do not recover completely and the individual learns coping skills or seeks pharmacological and/or non-pharmacological interventions (Taverner,
Understanding pain starts by first defining the most basic aspect of pain: acute pain versus chronic pain. One of the main jobs of the nervous system is to sense and interpret a variety of stimuli, including thermal, mechanical, environmental, and chemical irritants. These stimuli can generate acute pain, and in the setting of persistent injury, both peripheral and central nervous system components of the pain communication pathway display plasticity, enhancing pain signals and producing hypersensitivity (Basbaum, et al., 2009). It is beneficial when plasticity enables protective reflexes, but when the changes are continuous, chronic pain can occur. There is a strong linkage between acute pain and emotion.
Multiple sclerosis symptoms are similar to those of a pinched nerve and transverse myelitis; which is caused by inflammation within the spinal cord. Normally multiple sclerosis’ course is different in everyone. Once the first attack has occurred, it may take days, weeks, months, or even years pass before the second attack can happen. Normally after relapsing remitting course, individuals will continue this phase and be considered in the secondary progressive course. After the age of 40 one can experience primary progressive multiple sclerosis, in which they will gradually experience a physical decline and sometimes show no remissions with temporary relief of any symptoms that are showing.