Transformational vs. Transactional Leadership

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Introduction

Over the past twenty years, an abundant body of researches have been done to review transformational leadership and transactional leadership. Burn (1978) was the first person to introduce and conceptualize the concept of transformational leadership and transactional leadership. Bass (1985) based on Burn’s concept and deepened his notion with modifications, which stated that one of the best frameworks of leadership is transformational or transactional. Following Bass and Avolio (1994, p. 4) provided the idea of these two leaderships and generalized them into the development of global economic world. Bass and Avolio (1997) also suggested that there was no need to view transformational and transactional leadership as opposing ways or leaderships when we applied them into our management. Recently, researchers have begun to increase the interest of investigating the relationship between these two leaderships and seeking the influences and correlation with other features, like personality, performance and behaviour towards effectiveness (Hartnell & Walumbwa, 2011, p. 225; Rowld & Rohmann, 2009, p. 42; Bono & Judge, 2004, p. 901; Eeden, Cilliers & Deventer, 2008, p. 253). In this essay, I would like to distinguish transformational and transactional leadership and talk the possible integrations between them.

Critical discussions

The main distinction of transformational and transactional leadership is the way that how leaders relate with followers and the acquisition they receive from each other (Burn, 1978). Transactional leadership requires exchange of resources as the leaders explain the procedure to followers and expects them to successfully complete their work to fulfil their needs (Eeden et al., 2008, p...

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... (2004). Transformational and transactional leadership: a meta-analytic test of their relative validity. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89(5), 755-768. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.89.5.755

Kezar, A., & Eckel, P. (2008). Advancing diversity agendas on campus: examining transactional and transformational presidential leadership styles. International Journal of Leadership in Education, 11(4), 379-405. doi: 10.1080/13603120802317891

Rowold, J., & Rohmann, A. (2009). Transformational and transactional leadership styles, followers’ positive and negative emotions, and performance in German nonprofit orchestras. Nonprofit Management & Leadership. 20(1), 41-59. doi: 10.1002/nml.240

Ruggieri, S. (2009). Leadership in virtual teams: a comparison of transformational and transactional leaders. Social Behavior and Personality, 37(8), 1017-1022. doi: 10.2224/sbp.2009.37.8.1017
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