Therefore, this united the tribes that became part of the Islamic Empire through the authority of a monotheistic state and religion. The Rashidun dynasty became the first to rule after the death of Muhammad. However, this decision created a divide amongst the two sects of Islam; the Sunnis and Shi`a. Their opposing views about legitimacy ignited the instability that would reign towards the end of the Rashidun rule and still marks for the tensions between the two groups in the Muslim community today. Yet, because of the expansion of Islam with the Near East, the caliphs had to draw in multiple
Besides the conquerors the Muslim traders admitted themselves for the expansion of Islam in India. Islam was spread more widely with the arrival of Muslim merchants and traders... ... middle of paper ... ... legalism and cultivation of the soul over social interaction. Sufism facilitates the fusion of Islam with pre-Islamic practices and cultures (Huahan, “Spread of Islam in South Asia”). As pre-Islamic law continued to govern the indigenous population while Islamic law was restricted to specific religious issues such as following of Islamic customs strictly. Also Sufism teachings are out of social class and jurisprudence.
After Muhammad’s death in 632, the expansion of Islam continued at an even faster pace because of the Muslim’s dedication to jihad, or “holy war,” which calls for the protection of Islam and the converting of non-believers. Originally jihad did not call for the violent conquest and conversion of non-Muslims, but some adherent’s interpretation of the Quran allowed them to do so. As a result, Islam soon spread throughout the Arabian peninsula. During its spread, Islam split into two sects, the Shia and the Sunni. The rift appeared because of a small political disagreement on who was to be Muhammad... ... middle of paper ... ...owards violence.
The system of land tax，the tendency towards maximizing state demand in the Delhi Sultanate, the imperial ruling elite’s attitude and other new strategies brought by the invading Muslims have generated a new situation in economy of India which is different from both its original situation and y also different from that of the Islamic world outside of India. The culture synthesis between Muslims and Indians in the 19th century has in prepareding a favorable cultural climate for the expansion of trade and commerce.  In other culturale area, the benefits brought by the Muslims culture are also obvious. In the area of medicine, the Aral Muslims had maintained the public institutions and used some of them as hospitals. Th... ... middle of paper ... ...ury.
“Religion of the Sword” theory assumes the Islamization in Bengal was the result of military and political coercion on the local population. But, it fails to answer why the large concentration of Muslims existed inversely in East Bengali. Later, I will address Eaton’s new findings relative to the large concentration of Muslims in East Bengal, rather than the W... ... middle of paper ... ...pic Eaton utilizes to explain the inevitable consolidation of deities, and formation of a monotheistic region. The depiction of superhuman beings in these texts served as a cultural translation for the increasingly literate non-Muslims. The epic was highly influential in depicting Islāmic cosmology as more similar to that of Hinduism’s.
Following the same ideology, but specific to Saudi Arabia, is Wahhabism. Wahhabism has a fairly negative connotation within the Western world; however, this sect was highly influential and continues to be esteemed by the royal Saudi family. This orthodox reform movement was founded by Muhammad ibn Abdel Wahhab, a Salafi scholar, during the eighteenth century in response to “what he perceived as the moral decline of his society” (Blanchard). Abdel Wahhab impacted the Arabian Peninsula through a serious of reforms, aiming to return to and strengthen monotheistic belief and unity under Islam. Before the wide acceptance of his viewpoint, Abdel Wahhab was opposed not only by advocates of “Islamic ignorance”, or jahiliyah, but also scholars.
It is based on the Quran and on the views of the prophet” (Jelloun 100). It is a law that governs the believer’s conducts and lifestyle. It regulates the believer on what to do and what not to do. The severity of the law in some Islamic societies, however, has drawn criticism and has made people from other religious sects wary of the religion itself. This is because we now live in a modernized society.
Muhammad started off with very few followers but as the faith of Allah started to spread, he gained more followers and he became a threat to Mecca’s rulers. As mentioned in World Civilization, “in 622 Muhammad left Mecca for Medina where his skilled leadership brought new followers.” In Medina, Muhammad became the religious authority in the area and he used this power to conquer Mecca, a holy place for Islamic believers. By the time of his death, he was able to have created a religious empire that controlled all of the Arabian Peninsula. Along with Muhammad’s influence on Islam, trade routes also provided a significant impact on the spread of Islam. The most important and remembered trade routes were the Silk Roads and the Indian Ocean trade route.
These people had many points to persuade people to convert to Islam. Soon after the Arab army started conquering people and making them convert; “Conquest by Muslim Arabs gradually turned into a more general spread of Islam in its Middle Eastern-North African heartland and beyond” (“North Africa” 48). This was because of the ... ... middle of paper ... ...trades spreading the religion, and conquering of neighboring countries. Missionary efforts helped convert because they made the Islamic religion seem better than all other religions because of their biased views which made them tell only the good sides of the religion. Traders would tell other traders how sense they had converted to the Muslim religion their trading bussiness has blossomed.
Initially, Malcolm believed whites to be evil, but all this beliefs were gone, because he was now a changed man. After accomplishing a pilgrimage to Mecca, Malcolm discovered an atoning power of Islam of unity and pea... ... middle of paper ... ...ly. Malcolm’s travels to the Middle East transformed his spiritual aspects, and how he looked at the current issues facing the United States. He underwent a quick conversion, which later made him an international figure, later in his life. After visiting Mecca, he realized that Africans needed to embrace brotherhood by converting to the Muslim faith in order to fight racism.