From a social-cognitive perspective your environment can change your personality, however, humanistic approach implies and event happens in your life and you apply your free will which defines your personality. The social-cognitive approach emphasizes the importance of cognitive processes, situational influences, observational learning, and self-efficacy while, the humanistic approach emphasizes free will, personal awareness, and psychological growth. The social-cognitive theory explains behavior is guided by cognitions of the world, in contrast, the humanistic approach stresses the importance of free will in explaining behavior. The social-cognitive theory incorporates mostly objective and some subjective information, while, the humanistic approach is more concerned with the subjective experiences of the individual. The social-cognitive perspective does not regard humans a unique.
Theories of human development deliver a framework to deliberate human growth, development, and learning. Understanding the theories can deliver useful contents into individuals and society a set of principles and concepts that describe life span development. Development perspectives are the psychoanalytic theory, behavior theory, humanistic approach and cognitive theory. Each theory focuses on different aspects of human development. The psychoanalytic is “the approach stating that behavior is motivated by inner forces, memories, and conflicts that are usually unconsciousness” ().Following, the behavior perspective emphasizing on the observable behaviors and “outside stimuli from the environment”.
Theorists such as Carl Jung and Karen Horney, adapted and built on Freud’s ideas and formed new theories of personality. Carl Jung viewed the unconscious as the ego’s source of strength and energy. Karen Horney believed that both conscious and unconscious factors influence personality and that anxiety was a powerful force on personality outcomes. Like Freud, Jung and Horney’s theories support and provide reasoning for mental disorders and specific behavior. Overall, the psychoanalytic approach digs into a person’s past and life experiences to provide reasons for current behavior and allows them to overcome their issues.
In Freudian theory, the mind has three level of consciousness: conscious, preconscious, and unconscious. Freud (1940/1969) stated that behaviour of human is driven by instinctual drives, being the unconscious motives. Freud (1901/1965; 1923/1960) also stated that there are three basic structures of personality that graft the instincts – id, superego and ego. Id contains all the raw instinctual energy, superego is the conscience and ego is the balance between id and superego, which operates according to reality (as cited in Maltby et al., 2013). Psychosexual development of personality is the central element of Freudian theory.
There are various theories of presented by theorists which is based on their own studies and projections. Personality is a dynamic organization, inside the person, of psychophysical systems that create the person’s characteristic patterns of behaviour, thoughts and feelings(G.W. Allport, 1961). The way a person thinks, behaves and acts can be defined as personality. The study of personality focuses on two broad areas: the first study involves the understanding of individual differences in particular personality characteristics, which may be sociability or irritability.
The humanistic view of personality is based on the belief that an accurate observation of self and the ability reach needs in different stages of development result in self-actualization (Pettijohn, n.d.). Behaviorist Theory The behaviorist theory states an individual’s personality result
Over the years, people have wondered what goes on in a person's mind that guides them to meet their needs. Sigmund Freud developed a system of personality that boldly attempts to explain the course of personality and what was it origins. Freud theory assumes that one's personality is shaped and some powerful inner forces motivate one's behavior. According to Freud, personality differences commence from the different ways in which people deal with their underlying drives. By picturing a continuing battle between antagonistic parts of personality, Freud was able to develop three systems that make up the total personality.
Finally, the fourth major theory of personality is social cognitive which was developed by social learning theorists. The first major theory of personality called psychodynamic was developed by Sigmund Freud who is the most known figure in personality psychology. Psychodynamic which is also known as psychoanalytic is based upon three different assumptions. The first assumption is called Psychic Determinism which is the belief that any psychological event that happens have a root cause, that how we act and what we do today is based upon our past childhood experiences. The second assumption is
The EGO is guided through the reality principle, which takes into consideration what is practical and possible in gratifying needs. According to Freud, it is the EGO, which provides the conscious sense of self. The SUPEREGO is the third and final psychic structure, which develops throughout early childhood. The SUPEREGO incorporates moral standards and values into the individual though the moral principle, which sets moral standards and enforces adherence to them. The SUPEREGO monitors the actions of the EGO and judges them right or wrong.
The aim of this essay is to describe the trait approach and critically evaluate its contribution to our understanding of personality. Personality is said to address many issues but the three main ones are, Human universals, individual uniqueness and individual difference. Personality scientists define the word personality in a very different manner then what we use in an everyday context, personality psychologists say that personality may refer to “psychological qualities that contribute to an individuals enduring and distinctive patterns of feeling, thinking and behaving” (Pervin and Cervone 2010). This means that personality characteristics are consistent over time and over a wide range of situations, people have personalities that are