A. Behaviorism, constructivism and cognitivism are relatively common theories used in the classroom as ways to approach student learning. Behaviorism focuses on observable behavior, such as students answering questions correctly, or being able to follow directions to complete a task as instructed. Characteristics of a classroom that uses behaviorism might be memorization of facts, writing vocabulary words, or a token reward system to inspire the desired behavior and decrease undesired behaviors. Constructivism, as indicated by the root word “construct,” focuses on the construction of new ideas, or expanding on what is already known. Students in a classroom using constructivism as a means for learning might seem more actively engaged in the learning process; they often learn something new through applying what they already know about the content area, and exploring new matter to further their understanding.
It aims to understand the process, problems, issues and constraints in action (Lewin, 1947). This step is important as it requires teachers to collect, record and analyse the progress of their lesson so that they can identify areas that need improvement. Moreover, asking the students their opinion on the lesson is an effective way to obtain students ' feedback regarding teachers ' performance. This is a good way to personalise the teaching and learning process as it involves both the teacher and students in the evaluation session. By listening to students’ feedback, teachers would be able to perceive their classroom practices from a different perspective and also embody the participative and collaborative process in classroom.
Linking instruction and assessment is critical to effective learning. Educators should provide students with various options for learning that include: different ways to learning (style and time), di... ... middle of paper ... ...re provided with ample opportunities to demonstrate their abilities. MI theory is used as formal and informal assessment in the classroom to allow students to be grasp and understand concepts. The use of multiple types of assessments in the classroom yield richer and more qualitative information about a child's achievement. If the ultimate goal is student learning, then there is a place for both standardized testing and authentic assessment using the MI theory in today's classroom.
They make effective use of self-centered teaching; one of Mosston and Ashworth’s eleven teaching styles. This teaching style will allow students to take on the role as teacher and help their peers in learning and assessing new material. It also makes students cognizant of their own biases, whilst being exposed to other perspectives and observation styles that together help the student develop their ability to judge others not according to personal preference or emotional appeal. Furthermore, students can actually develop a cognitive understanding of all components of each skill being evaluated. Peer assessments require that the student-teacher is able to grasp the skill components cognitively.
The teacher helps the student develop their own goals and assessments. The student is responsible for learning and is a member of community of learners. The goal is to collaborate with fellow students and learn in a social experience. They take ownership and voice in the learning process. In comparison, behaviorism assessments is teacher planned and implemented and cognitivism uses assessments such as essays that are individualized for the student.
INCLUDE allows teachers a strategy for making adaptations or accommodations based on individual student needs, along with the teacher’s expectations in the classroom. (Friend & Bursuck, 2006) The INCLUDE strategy is based on the theory that what takes place in a classroom can either lessen the impact of student learning or increase it, making adaptations necessary to change, or modify student learning behavior. By evaluating a student’s learning needs and styles, and the demands of the classroom environment, a teacher can accommodate most students with special needs in their classrooms. (Friend & Bursuck, 2006) The INCLUDE strategy contains components of both universal design and differentiated Instruction. These two strategies are approaches that address classroom diversity in general education settings, and inclusion classroom settings.
The Foundation for Learning Students past interests, experiences, prior knowledge, references and thought processes can effective the way students learn, process information and remember due to prior experiences, how it made them feel and their personal views and attitude towards specific subjects and can alter the way they learn new material and concepts because of this meaningful learning is important. It is a teachers job to have teach students in a way that can relate to their background knowledge and insure that material in on a level the student an process. Material and lessons should be relevant to the student to make it easier to promote learning in the classroom. However, learning cannot occur without having a prior foundation because this gives a basis from which to build. “The link between past experiences, student interest, and present learning is that we draw upon previous experiences and memories as we learn” (Slavin, 2006).
The first is the cognitive domain of the students. This includes how students organize and retain the knowledge that is presented to them as well as their preferred learning style. A successful teacher should be aware of these factors and their curriculum should reflect this by using different teaching methods. This is to ensure each student is given the opportunity to absorb as much knowledge as they can. The next factor affecting the nature of students are their attitudes, or affective domain.
Individualized instruction programs focus on objectives that are personal for each child. The child is an active partner in decision-making in terms of activities, subject matter, and assessment. Because students learn at different rates, individualized instruction is flexible in instructional pacing and the scheduling of class material. Individual instruction should be varied for each student in order to provide a variety of learning modalities best suited for the student. Teachers must be dedicated to curriculum planning and instructional decision-making, and encourage students to be responsible for their learning and take an active role in the learning process.
Curriculum-based assessments provides important and valuable data that teachers can utilize to meet the needs of their students with special needs. These type of assessments are utilized to help teachers diagnose specific skills deficits and measure student performance over time (Friends & Bursuck, 2009). Another type of assessments that is utilized in schools is the standardized achievement tests. These assessments are designed to measure student progress, different areas of the curriculum and what students have retained from the curriculum (Friends & Bursuck, 2009). I have experience in my classroom that