WM involves ‘the temporary storage and manipulation of information’ necessary for the operation of complex cognitive tasks (Hummel & Holyoak 2003); WM therefore is an indicator of our capacity for thinking and for language processing. The present study will be empirically examining the possible relation between WM working memory and L2 vocabulary learning to test the hypothesis that the capacity of WM is correlated with vocabulary learning rate. Background of literature A WM model first proposed by Baddeley and Hitch in 1974 consists of three basic components: the central executive, the phonological loop and the visual/ spatial sketchpad. In 2000 this model was extended with the multimodal episodic buffer. The central executive directs information to the three processes: the phonological loop, the visual/ spatial sketchpad, and the episodic buffer.
He argued that the organization of words in memory depend on the phonological knowledge of the words in second language acquisition. However, in first language acquisition the memory depends on the semantic knowledge. Mear (1980) conducted a study on lexical performance in fir... ... middle of paper ... ... 15-31. Prarthana,S. & Prema, K. (2012).
In the first level, the speaker constructs his ideas and intentions. In the second level, the speaker transforms his intentions and ideas into words. In the third level, the speaker orders the word and phrases in patterns. In the fourth level, the speaker, "activates a series of verbal gestures through articulating planning" (MacWhinney, 2001, p.12346). Moreover, Field (2005) revealed that speech errors are able to provide psycholinguistics with information about the words storage and retrieval from the mental lexicon.
Cerebral dominance and attentional bias in word recognition. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 66, 791-800. Lindell, A. K., & Nicholls, M. E. (2003). Attentional deployment in visual half-field tasks: The effect of cue position on word naming latency. Brain and Cognition, 53(2), 273-277.
2006). These forms can change the meaning of a word but do not have meaning without attachment to a word. For instance –ed can change a verb into its past tense, while adding dis- to the beginning o... ... middle of paper ... ...i:10.1017/S0305000907008525 Reed, D. K. (2008). A synthesis of morphology interventions and effects on reading outcomes for students in grades K-12. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 23(1), 36–49 *Siegel, L. S. (2008).
Wilkins points out ‘without grammar very little can be conveyed, but without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed’ (1972, p. 111, as cited in Milton, Wade, & Hopkins, 2010). In line with him, Ellis also emphasizes that foreign language lexicon is the basis of other aspects of language learning such as grammar (as cited in Milton, Wade, & Hopkins, 2010). Meanwhile, as Laufer (1998) mentions, the major difference in vocabulary learning between foreign language learners and native speakers lies in the progress of vocabulary size. Although it is fair to say words are the main units of the vocabulary, Carter (1987) argues that a series of words is not the whole story of the vocabulary of a language. Thus, different attempts have been made to explore the process of vocabulary learning, among which is the notion of conceptualization Carter defines as creating new concepts based on the already existing concepts and words.
Upshur, J. A., & Turner, C. E. (1999). Systematic effects in the rating of second-language speaking ability: Test method and learner discourse. Language Testing, 16(1), 82–111. Weigle, S. C. (2002).
Each time a bilingual speaks its brain functions in slightly different ways than that of a monolingual’s. Bilinguals deal with constant dual-language activation as they are able to switch between two sometimes very different languages. The ability to use one language without intrusions from the other language is seen as an important topic of study (Van Assche, Duyck, and Gollan, 2013). However, one of the costs of being bilingual is the reduced exposure to each language. Studies show that both sequential and simultaneous bilinguals score lower on vocabulary measures than monolinguals (Rosselli et al., 200 as cited in Kaushankaya, Blumenfeld and Marian, 2011).
Language in Society, 28(4), 555 – 578. Werker, J. F. & Tees, R. C. (2005). Speech perception as a window for understanding plasticity and commitment in language systems of the brain. Developmental psychobiology, 46(3), 233 – 251. Zhang, Y., Kuhl, P. K., Imada, T., Kotani, M., & Tohkura, Y.
It refers to ‘the set of abilities that allows an individual to select an action that is appr... ... middle of paper ... ...ya, J., & Bialystok, E. (2011). The effects of bilingualism on toddlers’ executive functioning. Journal of experimental child psychology, 108(3), 567-579. Pratte, M. S., Rouder, J. N., Morey, R. D., & Feng, C. (2010). Exploring the differences in distributional properties between Stroop and Simon effects using delta plots.