Annotated Bibliography Holmes, Malcolm D. "Minority threat and police brutality: Determinants of civil rights criminal complaints in US municipalities." Criminology 38.2 (2000): 343-368. This article was on research or study on police brutality using the conflict theory and analysis. In this article, the research is tested by using the number of threatening acts and citizens depended by the number of complaints filed to the U.S. Department on police violence. The research helps to test the measurement of minority threats connecting with criminal control.
“The Effect of Sanctions on Police Misconduct.” Crime & Delinquency 60(8):1258–88. Klockars, Carl B., Sanja Kutnjak Ivkovich, William E. Harver, and Maria R. Haberfield. n.d. “The Measurement of Police Integrity.” National Institute of Justice Research in Brief 1–11. Martin, Rich M. S. 2017. “Police Corruption: An Analytical Look into Police Ethics.” FBI.
Retrieved November 26, 2013, from http://www.dwetendorf.com/Article_NCWP.htm Wetendorf, D. (2000). The Impact of Police-Perpetrated Domestic Violence. The Impact of Police-Perpetrated Domestic Violence. Retrieved November 26, 2013, from http://www.dwetendorf.com/Wetendorf_ImpactPoliceDV_FBI.pdf Zavala, E. (2013). Testing the Link between Child Maltreatment and Family Violence among Police Officers.
The limit of oversight of policing: Evidence from the 2001 Cincinnati riot. Journal of Public Economics, 93 (2)99-113. Levin, b (2002). From slavery to hate crime: the emergence of race and status based protection in American Criminal Law. Journal of social issues, 58, 227-245.
MINORITY THREAT AND POLICE BRUTALITY: DETERMINANTS OF CIVIL RIGHTS CRIMINAL COMPLAINTS IN U.S. MUNICIPALITIES. Criminology, 38(2), 343-367.
“Police throughout the United States have been caught fabricating, planting, and manipulating evidence to obtain convictions where cases would otherwise be very weak. Some authorities regard police perjury as so rampant that it can be considered a "subcultural norm rather than an individual aberration" of police officers. Large-scale investigations of police units in almost every major American city have documented massive evidence of tampering, abuse of the arresting power, and discriminatory enforcement of laws. There also appears to be widespread police perjury in the preparation of reports because police know these reports will be used in plea bargaining. Officers often justify false and embellished reports on the grounds that it metes out a rough justice to defendants who are guilty of wrongdoing but may be exonerated on technicalities.” ― Dale Carpenter, Flagrant Conduct: The Story of Lawrence v. Texas Serve and Protect are common words associated with police officers, however some law enforcement officers taint the honor and integrity of the job.
(1997). Police Brutality in the USA. Lancet 350.9088, 1395. The article “Police Brutality in the USA” provides indefinite niceties on how excessive force is becoming a distinctive area that’s always under discussion. In the editorial it enlightens how on a daily foundation our society has numerous current events happening, due to the deadly force existence, used by police officers.
Smith, M. R., Petrocelli, M., & Scheer, C. (2007). Excessive force, civil liability, and the taser in the nation's courts. Policing, 30(3), 398-422 Sussman, A. (2012). Shocking the Conscience: What police tasers and weapon technology Reveal about excessive force law.
“Delinquency Prevention: A Description And Assessment Of Projects Reported In The Professional Literature.” Crime & Delinquency, 22(3), 297-308. Quinney, R. (1977). Class, state, and crime: On the theory and practice of criminal justice. New York: D. McKay Co 179-180. OJJDP: Juvenile offenders and victims, 1999 National Report.