Geretsegger, M., Holck, U., & Gold, C. (2012). Randomised controlled trial of improvisational music therapy’s effectiveness for children with autism spectrum disorders. BMC Pediatrics, 12(2), 1-9. Groß, W., Linden, U., & Ostermann, T. (2010). Effects of music therapy in the treatment of children with delayed speech development - research articleopen access results of a pilot study.
They often have trouble concentrating for long periods of time and lack a prolonged attention span. These challenges raise concern over treatment options, in which, equine therapy is recommended to elevate the child’s social development. According to Aspen Educational Group, the worlds leading provider of educational and behavior programs, autistic children gain a sense of self-awareness; equine therapy gives autistic children an increased connection with the surrounding world (“Equine Therapy for Autistic”). A survey was taken by the Interactive Autism Network that shows the number of children with varying symptoms that participate in animal-assisted therapy.
Autism is a form of neurodevelopment disorder in the autism spectrum disorders. It is characterized by impaired development in social interactions and communication, both verbal and non-verbal. There is an observed lack of spontaneous acts of communication; both receptive and expressed, as well as speech impairments. A person diagnosed with Autism will also show a limited range of activities and interests, as well as forming and maintain peer relationships. The individuals will display limited interests, which are often very focused and repetitive.
Children with autism have difficulty reading social cues, initiating, sustaining, or terminating a conversation appropriately with peers (Boutot, 2007). Children with autism lack proper communication skills and other alternative devices and also may have limited activities or other interests that they enjoy doing. Often times a child with Autism will become extremely upset when a change of routine takes place that he or she does not initiate. For instance, if a person was to try to take away a child with autism’s toy they are engaging in, then the child will more than likely become hysterical and often times violent towards said person. According to Boutot (2010), interacting with same-aged, typical peers, children with ASD (autism spectrum disorder) has been shown to improve their behaviors, communication and social skills, and play behaviors (p. 156).
Autistic children have trouble with understanding messages and interpretation of facial expressions, body language, tone of voice, and emotional expressions directed toward them. There is also a sense of fear that they have when there is a change of environment (Goldstein, Naglieri, Rzepa, & Williams, 2012). These children also show many developmental struggles like reciprocal socialization, interests, motor skills, cognitive skills, thinking, and activities. On top of all of those developmental difficulties as many as 70% of children with autism spectrum disorder show challenging behaviors, including aggression, disruptive behaviors, and cause injury to themselves. When a child with autism has disruptive behaviors is can lessen the response to educational intervention and then turn into further separation from children around their age, which increases the caregivers stress related to disruptions in daily activities (Lesack, Bearss, Celano, & Sharp, 2014).
Abstract Children with autism have multiple characteristic impairments in their social interaction skills. This results from the lack of “Theory of Mind” in autistic individuals. Autistic children have difficulty interpreting what another person may be thinking or feeling. Social impairments may cause the child to act inappropriately in social interactions and prevent the children from truly taking part in interactions. The children have difficulty recognizing social cues and responding to cues.
Autism is actually called Autism Spectrum Disorder and encompasses a broad range disabilities such as Asperger syndrome, Rett’s Syndrome, and Pervavasive Development Disorder (Dunlap & Fox, n.d.). There are also varying degrees of the disorder from low-functioning (no communication and no social interaction) to high-functioning (some communication and inappropriate but existent social skills.) One of the most difficult things teachers will face when dealing with Autistic children is their lack of communication skills and inappropriate or nonexistent social skills. In addition to academic instruction children with Autism require instruction in communication techniques and social skills. Kamps et.al.
Feasibility and Initial Efficacy of a Comprehensive School-Based Intervention for High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders. Psychology in The Schools, 49(10), 963-974. Strid, K. (2013). Pretend play, deferred imitation and parent-child interaction in speaking and non-speaking children with autism. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 54(1), 26-32.