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Theory Of Intelligence

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Rust and Golombok (2014) suggest that psychometrics play an increasingly significant role in an individual’s life, as assessment and testing occurs from nursery until retirement. The nomothetic and idiographic debate is one of the main discussions within psychology; the nomothetic approach focuses on studying what individuals share with one and other such as law, whereas the idiographic approach is concerned with what makes the individual unique. Lewis and Crozier (2012) believe that psychometrics is a standardised test that evaluates the individual’s critical thinking abilities and personality using a variety of evaluation tools. Within the nomothetic approach, psychometric tests are used as part of the research as quantitative measures are…show more content…
Intelligence is having the ability to have reason and logic, the act of understanding and having the capability to apply aspects of knowledge and skill to everyday life. Throughout psychological research there are many psychometric theorists with a range of significant theories for intelligence, examples include; Charles Spearman and his theory of ‘g’ in 1927, Cattell’s 1963 theory of fluid ‘Gf’ and crystallized intelligence ‘Gc’, John Carroll’s 1997 three tiered model of intelligence, Sternberg’s layperson’s definition, Howard Gardner’s 1983 theory of multiple intelligence and Salovey and Mayer’s 1990 theory of emotional intelligence. Lovie posited the idea that Charles Spearman’s early statistical contributions are regarded as “the earliest version of a factor analysis” (Dreary et al, 2008, p. 2). Spearman’s many works on human intelligence differences include the paper where he discovered the general factor in human intelligence and his accounts of the measurement of human…show more content…
Spearman also believed that the performance of any test of mental ability called for the use of a specific ability factor he titled ‘s’, examples include; being logical, spatial, arithmetical and mechanical. Spearman also believed that all intelligent abilities have an area of overlap which is what he called ‘g’ and this is also dependent on the ‘s’ factor, but general ability is dominant when doing tasks. An advantage of Spearman’s theory of ‘g’ is that it is a good predictor of performance in an academic setting such as a school environment as it is objectively defined and measured by an IQ score; this can also be used in later life in a work environment as it can also predict performance in certain careers. Beaujean (2015) suggests that many theorists who did not deny the existence of ‘g’ wanted to do further research to extend this theory so it will account for group factors, an example of this is the theorist John Carroll and his 1997 Three-Stratum Theory of Intelligence. This theory is a hierarchal theory that is a compromise between the general and distinct abilities views of