People make decisions,usually without any further thinking and evaluation, about the goodness or badness of an act, object, person, event or situation. There may be more pros than cons to affect heuristics. However, the unexpected disadvantages of inaccurate heuristics are more alarming and detrimental when applied in the wrong situations. People make judgements based on the negative and positive feelings that they associate with a stimulus. Finucane, Alhakami, Slovic, & Johnson (2000) claimed that affective sensitivities play a significant role in making risk/benefit judgements.
In fact, although the use of subliminal messages is generally considered a foolish and invalid practice, the more general phenomenon of subliminal/unconscious perception deserves to be reevaluated in light of current debates surrounding the nature of consciousness. Subliminal or unconscious perception refers to the idea that stimuli presented below the threshold for conscious awareness can influence an individual's thoughts, feelings, or actions (2). The possibility that an individual can acquire and act on input without being aware of doing so has implications for the study of consciousness and the larger set of processes which characterize the I-function. It is generally assumed that that conscious perception of a stimulus is necessary in order to act on that stimulus, and this conscious decision to act is one of several processes which characterize the I-function.
Emotion is defined as the reaction to a stimulus, which is only inferred and not observed. Emotions play a powerful role in shaping thoughts, influencing behavior, and steering motivation to do things. As much as it helps with understanding the people around you and building relationships, it plays a big part in influencing daily decisions and behavior. While emotions are a universal language and may be a crucial key to getting to know yourself and the world, it hinders your perception and judgment as what you may think is right, may be wrong for someone else. This essay will further elaborate on the strengths and weaknesses of emotions in different areas of knowledge.
They can be understood as both moral or corrupt, but the judgement of that comes from knowing the situation and the affect the of the stereotype on the stereotyped. I would say in general that placing stereotypes is not the right thing to do, but it is in our nature and our brains are hard wired to formulate ideas about individuals based on the sensory details we receive. Not all stereotypes are out to hurt people. We have seen they are more commonly used as shortcuts in our brain when we don’t fully analyze or lack information in certain situations or brief encounters. To help combat stereotypes and the biases that accompany them, we can expose ourselves to different experiences to help gain knowledge and understanding of those who are different from you to help mitigate or
The theory of Cognitive Dissonance states that when individuals are presented with information that implies we act in a way that contradicts our moral standards, we experience discomfort (Aronson, Wilson, and Akert, 1998, P. 191). This is considered Cognitive Dissonance, A psychological term used to describe mental conflict that occurs when beliefs or assumptions are contradicted by new information; arouses unease or tension; relieved by one of several defensive maneuvers: rejecting, explaining away, or avoiding new information; persuading self that no conflict really exists; reconciling differences; or resorting to any other defensive means of preserving stability or order in conception of world and of self; first introduced in 1950s; has become major point of discussion and research in psychology (as cited in Compton’s Interactive Encyclopedia, 1996). This theory was developed by Leon Festinger (1957), is concerned with the relationships among cognitions. Cognition, for the purpose of this theory, may be thought of as a piece of knowledge, thoughts, feelings, or beliefs. Knowledge may be about an attitude, an emotion, a behavior, or a value.
Festinger described a cognition as any piece of knowledge a person may have about one’s attitude or behaviors. Festinger stated that when a cognition occurs that is in direct contradiction with the cognition that came before it, cognitive dissonance as occurred. The standard concept that has developed out of Festinger’s view is that cognitive dissonance occurs when a person’s action or behaviors are not consistent with the beliefs that they hold about themselves and how they should behave. This inconsistency in the person’s behaviors and their belief about themselves creates a feeling of psychological discomfort. When the psychological discomfort is great enough, a motivational state arises that compels the individual to reduce the discomfort.
The level of dissonance a person is experiencing, if any, is the main objective of the theory. If there is a person who does not feel psychologically uncomfortable with cognitive dissonance, the theory will not apply. Worldview 1 also includes a testable hypothesis, and Leon Festinger had three. The hypotheses for cognitive dissonance theory are mental mechanisms people use to ensure their actions and attitudes are synchronized (griffin, 2015, p. 202), and the objective experiment is to present evidence that will prove those hypotheses. The first hypothesis stated that selective dissonance prevents dissonance.
Cognitive Dissonance Cognitive dissonance is a theory defined as “the discomfort people feel when two cognitions (beliefs, attitudes) conflict, or when they behave in ways that are inconsistent with their conception of themselves” (Aronson, 2016, pg. 158). This, in turn, causes discomfort that can be difficult to ease. Some basic ways to reduce cognitive dissonance are: Realign our behavior with the dissonant condition, justify our behavior by changing one of the dissonant behaviors, justify our behavior by adding additional cognitions. The reason we experience cognitive dissonance is that as humans we aim to keep a positive self-image, but occasionally we go against that image and cause cognitive dissonance (Aronson, 2016).
The idea of fear is a fairly simple concept, yet it carries the power to consume and control lives. Fears have stemmed from an inadvertent psychological response to situations deemed threating to one’s personal safety, but have evolved into a complex web of often illogical misconceptions which are able to cloud a person’s judgment and result in situations often worse than originally intended. Fears can be hard to quell, but it has been shown the best way to overcome fears is often to face them, as author James Baldwin asserted when he wrote, “To defend oneself against fear is simply to insure that one will, one day, be conquered by it; fears must be faced.” Baldwin makes strongly qualified statement, and his idea fears must be faced to ensure one is not conquered by them is evident frequently, and is especially visible in Nathaniel Hawthorne’s classic novel, The Scarlet Letter. In The Scarlet Letter, two characters are placed in situations in which they are directly confronted with their fears, but react much differently, resulting in contrastingly different consequences. Baldwin’s assertion is qualified by the journeys of Hester Prynne and the Reverend Dimmesdale in The Scarlet Letter, who show how facing one’s fears can have a positive outcome while defending oneself from their fears can have detrimental consequences.
Agreeableness can also be a disadvantage if one is being pressured to do something wrong. This could be unhelpful in those kinds of situations. It is seen that people who