To attempt to eradicate the language of a particular place is a crime against its character and legacy. Given Ireland’s unique colonial history and the challenges it still faces today in regards to the preservation of its culture and language, it is easy to see why this play has become such an important piece of Irish culture.
Cahalan, in The Irish Novel, traces the tendency of Irish writers such as Swift, Edgeworth and Maturin to employ fantastic elements and non-realism in direct opposition to English colonial models and in affirmation of certain Irish traditions. Mercier, in The Irish Comic Tradition, points also to the presence of exaggeration, absurdity and scatological detail in Gaelic heroic cycles and poetry. In Flann O'Brien, Bakhtin, and Menippean Satire, M. Keith Booker begins by saying; "It has now become commonplace to think of Flann O'Brien along with James Joyce and Samuel Beckett as the three great Irish fiction writers...
This, however, seems a false sense of ‘Irishness’ at the time, though Haines claims Stephens resentment towards it has history to blame. Joyce uses various Irish texts to emphasise his point; using them in instances where they can be contradicted, or where they can mimic his own beliefs. He is attempting to shed light on the lack of Irish tradition under British rule and stifled by the Catholic Church. According to Williams, “the Roman Catholic Church and the colonial British state had a profound effect upon Joyce's consciousness.” ( 1991 ;39).‘Irishness’, therefore, is seen as having many different layers; the classic tradition that it once had, referred to in folk tales, and the harder view of what it has become through a lack of identity. This is shown through Stephen’s confusion and cynicism about what that identity actually entails.
(4)Finally, the issue of Irish culture and nationalism is one which is addressed in the novel, and O’ Brien’s rejection of a romanticised Ireland while still being influenced by old Irish texts also illustrate the tension between the old and the new. Embedded narratives are part of the literary tradition, and have appeared in many different periods and genres. Some of the better known examples include The Canterbury Tales, The Man Who Would be King and Arabian Nights. Traditionally the inclusion of an embedded narrative was done in such a... ... middle of paper ... ...include ‘plain’ readers, in the guise of Shanahan and Lamont, who are given the power to rewrite the story. Hence, the romantic portrait of the artist, which was personified by Stephen Dedalus is replaced by a committee of impetuous storytellers and petulant audiences .
The aims of raising cultural awareness and dispelling socio-political apathy in the North were central to the objectives of the Field Day group. However, despite Friel’s concerns with contemporary Ireland, the play is also an enchanting fictive account of the Irish experience of British colonialism. My aim in this page is to firmly place Translations within its historical context, in order to understand the representation of colonialism in the play and to facilitate further post-colonial readings. Translations may be located both temporally and spatially to a fixed point in Irish history. The characters hail from Baile Beag, renamed with the anglicised title of Ballybeg.
Although Act of Union is unmistakably one of Heaney’s most political poems, it subtly delivers the message of Heaney’s outlook on the Troubles through the dramatic monologue of England, introducing an ambiguous persona. Through the personification of England as masculine, dominant and overbearing, Heaney demonstrates his negative opinion of England the political unrest in Ireland, particularly Northern Ireland. However, he (as England) defends himself, suggesting she (Ireland) did not stand up for herself and ‘had it coming’. On the other hand, through the personification and visual imagery of Ireland as feminine, Heaney is adhering to gender stereotypes and portraying Ireland as the passive victim. The personification of both countries acts as an extended metaphor of a familial or sexual relationship, delicately delivering Heaney’s opinion of the Troubles.
In his chapter, Cohen provides, “Gerald of Wales suggest[ion] that medieval hybridity is the admixture of categories, traumas, and temporalities that reconfigure what it means to be human. Medieval hybridity is inherently monstrous” (89). In his proposal, Gerald is demonstrating the rejection of any type of crossbreeding between cultures, races, and species. Although he feels that hybridity constitutes the lack of humanity, his... ... middle of paper ... ...ng it as bestial, it was easy enough to use the idea of hybridity to turn people against the Irish. Cohen goes on to explain that Gerald’s texts, including, “Topographia Hibernica are reductive texts that unabashedly glorify the invasion of Ireland” (94).
marginalised, distorted representations of colonised cultures and individuals]' in texts accepted by their contemporary British culture. Said argues that the critical reappraisal of such texts 'entails reading the canon as a polyphonic accompaniment to the expansion of Europe, giving a revised direction and valence to such writers as Conrad and Kipling who have always been read as sports, not as writers whose manifestly imperialist subject matter has a long subterranean or implicit and proleptic life' in the works of preceeding generations of writers (Culture 71).
Justice Sutherland’s philosophy, “If the provision of the Constitution are not upheld, when they pinch as well as when they comfort, they must as well be abandoned is grounded on his great concern about power and danger of factions used by the Founders, specifically James Madison in Federalist No. 10, to describe what they, the Founders, deemed to be the greatest threat of self government. In this paper I will be looking emergency powers and comparing The South African Constitution with that of United States within the view of the Founders. The exercised of emergency powers has long been the concern of classical political theorists, including eighteenth-century English philosopher John Locke, who had strong influence upon the Founding Fathers in the United States. Locke argues that occasions may arise when the executive must exert a broad discretion in meeting special “emergencies” for which the legislative power provided no relief or existing law granted no necessary remedy.
What remains unnoticed is the fact that the novel also criticizes aspects of British rule in India. Focusing on this, the present article tries to show how the novel at times subverts the very discourse of colonialism it seeks to foster. William Browne Hockley (1792 – 1860) was a pioneer in the field of Anglo-Indian literature . He is remembered today mainly for his novel Pandurang Hari. Drawing on Elleke Boehmer’s classification, one may claim that Hockley was a ‘colonialist writer’.