Theories Of Nola Pender

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Health Promotion Model The health promotion model was created by Nola J Pender a former professor of nursing at the university of Michigan in 1982. Nola J. Pender health promotion model is considered a middle-range theory in nursing. A middle range theory simple means it “fill gaps between grand nursing theories and nursing practice” (McEwen & Wills, 2007). Since it is a middle range theory this would create a limit of concepts that can be used in practice and research. Nola J. Pender whole focus of the health promotion model is to increase the individual level of well-being. She later on revised her theory or model in 1996 based on changing theoretical outlooks and new findings. The health promotion model can be related to the four concepts…show more content…
So the individual biological factors such that of age, BMI, pubertal status, menopausal status, aerobic capacity, strength, agility or balance plays a role. Not only that, but also the individual psychological factors such as self-esteem, self-motivation and perceived health contributes to the individual characteristics. Perceived health status of an individual is the person sociocultural factor which includes race, ethnicity acculturation education, and socioeconomic status (Masters, 2011). Behavior specific cognitions and…show more content…
The person in the health promotion model is defined as the individual or a biopsychical organism (Pender, 2011). The person has an equal relationship between the individual and the environment he or she lives in. Meaning the person is shaped by their environment but they have chance to create an environment in which their inherent and acquired human potential can be fully expressed (Pender, 2011). the person characteristics as well as life experiences shape health behaviors. the individual can manipulate their environment to create a positive context of cues and facilitators for health enhancing behaviors. while nurses can work with individual, families and communities to create the most favorable conditions for the expression of optimal health and high level of well-being. The health promotion model defines health as "positive dynamic state not merely the absence of disease" (Health promotion model). Meaning "health in reference to the individual is defined as the actualization of inherent and acquired human potential through goal-directed behavior, competent self-care, and satisfying relationships with others, while adjustments are made as needed to maintain structural integrity and harmony with relevant environments" (Pender,
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