Theories Of B. F. Skinner And John Watson

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It is universally understood that individuals experience change whether it be their basic schema or their everyday actions. These changes occur on various occasions throughout one’s life time. However, how these changes occur is undecided between theorists. Two important theories are the biological/evolutionary and learning theories. Learning theories can be understood through two theorists- B.F. Skinner, and John Watson. Biological/evolutionary theories are explained and enhanced by David Buss and Hans Esnyeck. The learning theories attempt to understand individual changes by studying the idea of learnt traits, characteristics and actions. Whereas biological/evolutionary theories attempt to understand the functions of these changes. Have chosen…show more content…
This belief can be seen through two processes- the first being individuals are born with a specific phylogeny sequence that allows individuals to solve problems in a particular way and the effect of epigenetics, The second way being through the process of adaption and ontogeny’s. Phylogeny refers to inherited genotypes, and epigenetics is “the non-genetic influences on genotype expression” (Webster). Adaption is the “the adjustment or changes in behavior, physiology, and structure of an organism to become more suited to an environment.”(Buss.D.) Ontogeny refers to the characteristics of an individual developed as a result of experiences. I believe that the Biological/Evolutionary psychology theory can be used to understand my Sea Cadet experience because in cadets you are forced to adjust to your environment or else you do not rank up or receive medals and awards. The idea of having to adjust your schema and actions to fit and strive in your environment is like the idea of adapting to your environment-adapt or die. Everyone is born with specific predisposition to look and behave a certain way, this is due to the individual’s phylogeny. My great grandfathers and grandpas were in the military, my grandmother was a commanding officer of a Navy League corps-Navy League is Cadets for kids 9-12 years of age. My Aunts and Uncles on my father’s side were all in cadets, and my Mother and…show more content…
Skinner and John Watson, through their theories we are introduced to Classical and operant conditioning, modelling and shaping. Classical conditioning is the process repeatedly pairing two stimuli to obtain a response that is first elicited by the second stimulus, and is eventually elicited by only the first stimulus. Operant conditioning is the type of learning in which behavior is controlled by consequence. The key concepts being positive and negative reinforcement and positive and negative punishment. Positive is the idea of giving something and negative is the process of taking something away. Modelling is where individuals learn without any specific verbal direction and learn solely on imitation of others. Shaping is when an individual is reinforced for some approximation towards a goal behavior. It is important to know the brief of the 4 strategies of learning theories to understand how they were used throughout Cadets. When you are learning drill the movements are usually broken down into 4 steps, we do this as a form of shaping the division learns one move until they complete it on time and as one, was they achieve this they are reinforced with the next step in sequence. Another often used process is that of classical conditioning. When an officer walks into a room it is expected for everyone to come to attention and the highest rank says “sir/ma’am”. When individuals are new to the military
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