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Theories Explain Intelligence

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Many theories explain intelligence. Cattell, Gardener, Sternberg, Galton, & Spearman are just a few of those theorists. Intelligence is a wide scope and will be seen throughout this research paper. ‘‘Intelligence is the ability or abilities to acquire and use knowledge for solving problems and adapting to the world’’ (Woolfolk,1998).
The two main ways of measuring intelligence is ‘G’ and ‘S’ intelligence. ‘S’ stands for special intelligence or special abilities while ‘G’ stands for general or global mental ability. According to Matalon 2000, ‘‘Mental ability refers to being able to reason, understand, solve problems and learn from experience’’. It’s simply saying that we cannot directly see intelligence, but we can infer how intelligent a person is. This can be done through observation of someone’s behavior when confronted with events requiring the use of intelligence.
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Each of the 150 factors is important and an integral part of intelligence’’.
Encyclopedia Britannica 2013, ‘‘A leading American exponent of factor analysis for a comprehensive assessment of personality, Guilford constructed for this purpose batteries of tests, or factor inventories. His comprehensive, systematic theory of intellectual abilities, known as the structure of intellect, was outlined Human Intelligence (1967)’’.
Raymond Cattell
According to Heffner (2017), ‘‘described intelligence as having two distinct factors. The first he called Crystallized Intelligence, representing acquired knowledge, and secondly, Fluid Intelligence, or our ability to use this knowledge’’.
Fluid intelligence can be defined as ‘‘the ability to perceive relationships independent of previous specific practice or instruction concerning those relationships'' (Cherry 2017). Fluid intelligence involves being able to think and reason abstractly and solve