Summary: Background and objective. Tumor heterogeneity is shown to be related to clinical outcome in cancer patients. The concept of a small subset of cancer stem cells being responsible for tumor relapse and metastasis comes out as a promising strategy for targeted cancer therapy. However, cancer stem cells are not easy to identify and isolate. The aim of this study was to determine the putative colon cancer stem cell subsets in human colon cancer cell lines HCT116 and HT29, which differ in their aggressiveness and differentiation capacity.
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A. Background: Breast cancer has now become a disease which, in most cases, is easily treatable if detected early or non-aggressive. However, the major cause of death for patients with breast cancer is metastasis of tumor cells from the primary tumor to secondary sites throughout the body. Determining the hallmarks to differentiate aggressive tumors versus non-aggressive tumors will not only in how clinicians choose to initially treat the patients, but also could potentially be used as therapeutic targets to specifically target metastatic tumor cells. Determining the factors involved in allowing circulating tumor cells to adhere to each other and to blood vessel walls could lead to improved treatment options for patients with metastatic breast cancer.
liver or lymph nodes. The survival rate for people with metastatic melanoma decreases the later the diagnosis and the bigger the spread (metastasis) of the cancer. Scientists have therefore investigated ways in which treatment for melanoma can be improved by diagnostic markers and by targeting the genes involved in the development of melanocytes; also the genes involved in uncontrolled proliferation as seen in metastatic melanoma. BRAFV600E Mutation of BRAF gene (a member of the RAF family of serine-theronine kinase (Gorden et al., 2003) has led to countless research on therapeutic treatments that target BRAF gene and inhibit its expression. Before melanoma gets to the metastatic stages there are a series of somatic mutations in melanocyte genes that leads to the transition from radial growth phase to vertical growth phase (Tan, 2012).
It is important to note that the term cancer refers to a broad class of diseases as cancers have many different origins and must be treated differently. Can the immune system be trained to effectively treat or prevent certain cancers? First a look to the past to see where this theory came from to where it is taking us today, a look to the future where vaccines and potential cures could be the medical breakthrough of the century. For years the go to cancer treatment has been very invasive and often created hardships for patients. Today we are on the fast track of a breakthrough that could redefine typical cancer treatments, one that could and will save thousands who are at risk.
Another study done by Thomas Pento et al also suggests that the KGF induced breast cancer cell motility depends on another MAPK protein ERK1/2(Zang et al., 2004). Work done by Harold L Moses et al provides data for MAPK activation (ERK) in response to TGF β as well (FIG 3) (Giampieri et al., 2009; Xie et al., 2004) AKT Pathway Activation of AKT pathway is also crucial in breast cancer progression. Activation of Akt in breast canc... ... middle of paper ... ...cancer development: epithelial-mesenchymal transition in breast cancer development. Breast Cancer Res. 5:101-6.
Journal of national cancer institute.11:1154-1159 Yues, P. (2006) Topoisemerase 1 inhibitors: camptothecins and beyond. Nature Reviews Cancer.6:789-802 www.web-books.com/MoBio assessed; 10th, April, 2011
Studying thousands of genes at a time and profiling the genetics of breast cancer will provide new ways in managing the treatments of breast cancer patients. Several studies were released showing that using different microarray platforms on the same RNA samples gave different results. However this was due to reasons other than the unreliability of the techniques. The United States Food and Drug Administration launched a project named the Microarray Quality Control project to assess the reproducibility of microarray results across different platforms. They found that the microarray results are in fact highly reproducible within and across different microarray platforms.