There are giant plates under the surface of the Earth or the crust. These plates are constantly moving which means that they are bound to bump into each other at some point. A volcano is formed at a convergent plate boundary. A convergent plate boundary is formed when two plates hit each other and one plate goes under the other. When that plate is pushed down it melts from the heat of the mantle and turns to magma.
The descending in the subduction zone begins cold. As it descends heat increases because of the geothermal gradient and friction of subduction and heat lead to Fractional Melting . The initial melt may be mafic,but evolves through time to intermediate (Diorite/Andesite) and felsic (Plagiogranite/Rhyolite) rocks. Step 3- Generation of high P/high T ecolgite by descent of unmelted oceanic lithosphere which usually takes place above the subduction zone. The oceanic lithosphere which descend into the mantle has now been fractionated twice, once at the oceanic rift center, and now a second time along the subduction zone.
Alfred Wegener even came up with the Continental Drift theory. Alfred Wegener’s interest in kites and balloons began at the Royal Prussian Aeronautical Observatory near Berlin, Germany. In addition, Alfred and Kurt Wegener used kites and tied balloons to study the higher atmosphere. Without a doubt, Alfred and Kurt Wegener broke the world record for the longest time spent aloft in a hot air balloon with a total of fifty two hours. According to Dr. Johannes Georgi, a meteorologist and Greenland explorer, Alfred Wegener became the first person to trace storm tracks over the large covering of ice in the polar region.
Convection currents can also be what cause volcanic activity. When tectonic plates move into each other mountains are formed. As convection currents causes magma to rise to the surface of these mountains active volcanoes are formed. This makes sense since most active volcanoes are located right along plate boundaries. Convection can ... ... middle of paper ... ... beaker of water is observed to have similar swirling motions and upwards fluid travel leaving the heat source similar to magma activity under Earth's crust.
Volcanoes obtain their energies from such movement and pressure. Volcanoes form at the boundaries of these plate where two types of movement occurs, two plates will collide with each other or the plates will move apart from each other. Some of these plates layers are cooled and are made up of rigid rocks. The affects on the landscape is lava that releases onto the Earth's surface. When that lava comes to the Earths surface, it is red hot and sometimes the temperature is more than 2012 degrees Fahrenheit.
Tuzo Wilson in 1963, it states that hot spot volcanoes are created by exceptionally hot areas fixed deep below the Earth’s mantle. Recent scientific findings predict that these hot spots may be found at more shallow depths in the Earth’s mantle and may migrate over geologic time rather than being fixed in the same spot. II. HotSpots Volcanism Volcanoes caused as a result of formation of hot spots are called Hot spots volcanism. This kind of volcanoes is different from other volcanoes that occurs usually at the boundaries of Earths tectonic plates, rather it occurs at centers called Mantle Plumes.
The shield is built up of pahoehoe lava with a smooth surface that looks like coiled ropes when it cools. It is part of the Hawaiian Ridge-Emperor Seamount chain, a mostly underwater chain with more than 80 volcanoes. This chain is caused by the movement of the Pacific tectonic plate over the Hawaiian hot spot and extends more than 6000 km from the big island of Hawaii. Kilauea erupts from its summit caldera, from its East Rift Zone and the Sou... ... middle of paper ... ... all the Hawaiian volcanoes. Yellowstone is by far the largest of the 3 areas while Kilauea is the smallest.
In 1905 Alfred went to work with his older brother at the Aeronautischen Observatorium Lindenberg in Beeskow. The two brothers would be the first ones to pioneer the use of weather balloons to investigate air masses. Alfred Wegener was a meteorologist and explorer who was a pioneer in the studies of not only meteorology, astronomy, and polar exploration, but he also came up with the concept of the Continental Drift Theory. During his lifetime, Alfred was probably known best for his studies in meteorology and his explorations in Greenland. He participated in four separate Greenland expeditions where he and the team that he was with were charged with the duty of studying the last unknown portion of the Greenland coastal area.
Great mountain ranges are formed by the movement of tectonic plates. Convection currents deep in the mantle of the earth, begins to well up towards the surface. As the pressure increases, it sets the crustal plates in motion. There are different kinds of mountains - Volcanic, Folded, Fault-block, and Dome mountains. Volcanic mountains are formed when magma comes up through cracks in the Earth’s crust and explodes out lava and ash.
Almost 4,000 miles beneath the earth’s surface, this phenomenon known as geothermal energy gets generated deep inside the earth’s core. The outer core is made up of very hot magma or melted rock surrounding a solid iron center which is the inner core. Slow decay of radioactive particles continuously produces very high temperatures inside the earth; this process is natural in all rocks. Surrounding the outer core is the mantle, about 1,800 miles thick; it is made of magma and rock. The outermost layer of the earth is the crust.