The War between Scotland and England in the Reign of Edward I

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Why did War break out between Scotland and England in the Reign of Edward I? On the 14th of May 1264, the forces of Simon de Montfort, Gloucester and the Londoners were set arrayed against the loyalist forces of King Henry III, Richard of Cornwall and Prince Edward (later to become King Edward I). The loyalists suffered a massive defeat at this Battle of Lewes and among those captured, aside from Richard of Cornwall and perhaps the King (Prestwich indicates the unsure nature of the King's capture 46), were the northern barons (Scottish lords) of Balliol, Bruce and Comyn. (Jenks 132) Prince Edward also became a hostage as part of an exchange after the battle. These same men who fought together and were held captive by the de Montforts would war against each other thirty years later. King Edward I (whom will be referred to as Edward) was not set on instigating a war against Scotland, nor were any of these Scottish lords interested in battling against such a formidable opponent as England. So why did war occur if none of these men were initially motivated for war? A series of unfortunate, but potent events led to the chrysalis of war, which was then allowed to grow and fully develop into a war by the specific actions of individuals. This essay will attempt to draw attention to many of the events which gave rise to war and investigate the complex nature of the individuals who in the end caused war through their acts (intentional and non-intentional). During Henry III's reign the baronial reform movement was renewed once again. The Provisions of Oxford attempted, among other reforms, to "reform the household of the king and queen" (Baker 10), which undoubtedly included the household of the King and Queen's son, Edward. This le... ... middle of paper ... ...tic Scotland and the Middle Ages (Edinburgh, 1997) Vickers, K. H. A History of England: (Volume III) England in the Later Middle Ages (London, 1937). Webster, B. Scotland from the Eleventh Century to 1603 (London, 1975) *All primary documents from this text come with this preface in mind (especially that which I have bolded): In this volume, as in its predecessor, I have tried to keep both footnotes and editorial comment to a minimum, the only real problem occurring with documents written in the emerging literary English of the period. With most of these I have used modern versions, but one or two I have left in the original, to instance the spelling and form of the language. With these some notes have been necessary, but by and large they are intelligible with a little effort, and should be interesting to read. Such mistakes, as exist are of course, mine.
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