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The Use of Bioremediation to Clean Up the Environment

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Today Bioremediation has gained unparalleled importance in scientific fields. The term bioremediation very effectively describes its most important characteristic which is the use of living microorganisms for the improvement of the environment and maintaining a homeostasis in the ecosystem. It is used to clean up a vast range of hazardous waste from industries, farms, cities etc. These days the amount of pollutants and the variety of pollutants in the environment are increasing exponentially. This is why more and more efforts are being made in terms of the use of microorganisms for the conservation and protection of the biosphere. It works on the principle that microorganisms can transform the hazardous toxic wastes into less toxic or non toxic substances which may not cause any harm to the living and non living surroundings. The microorganisms act against the contaminants only when they have access to a variety of materials—compounds to help them generate energy and nutrients to build more cells.

Advantages of Bioremediation
a. Unlike many other remedial processes which use various chemical as well as/ or physical techniques, bioremediation is a natural phenomenon. It occurs spontaneously wherever the correct microorganisms are found in close vicinity of the hazardous wastes. Also this process generally requires continuous stimulus and it continues dynamically unless all the hazardous substances get depleted.

b. It is an environment friendly phenomenon in all the respects. It continues to occur without causing any sort of imbalance in the surrounding environment and does not interfere with other ecosystems. The process of bioremediation generally does not produce any harmful or toxic by products which can pollute or harm o...

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...al applications of most of the processes have only been explored at laboratory scale, but some techniques such as bioleaching, biosorption, bioprecipitation and autotrophic leaching as well as heterotrophic leaching have also been conducted successfully in fields and form the major basis of bioremediation technologies prevalent in current times.
Significant work has also been done in understanding the role of bioremediation in heavy metal cycling as well as radionuclides cycling in the environment and also their subsequent removal from the environment. However, still more advances are expected with the growing technologies and use of new age machines and resources. Today researchers are using various molecular, genetic and metabolic engineering tools which have immensely accelerated the use of bioremedial techniques and also have a remarkable role in their progress.
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