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The Use Of Animals In Research

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People believe that animal experimentation can be cruel and disgusting, but it is a very helpful task that needs to be done to test the outcomes of various medications. The history of animal testing dates back to the Greeks in the 4th and 3rd centuries B.C., with Aristotle and Erasistratus, who were among the first to preform experiments on living animals. It is estimated that more than 14 million rats and mice and 1.4 million other kinds of mammals are used in research each year. These experiments can be painful, damaging, and deadly to the animals used. Avensoar, who was Arabic physician in the 12th century, also practiced dissection, but also introduced animal testing as an experimental method of testing surgical procedures before applying them to actual humans. Experiments on animals are done for many reasons including to test cosmetics/ household products, required testing needed by the government, educational purposes, and to see the outcomes of medical procedures. Many of the products our families use daily were and still are tested on animals everywhere. The animals used in cosmetics and personal care products such as, lipstick, shampoo, cologne, etc. Guinea pigs and rabbits are usually used for the testing of toothpaste and mascara. Each ingredient in a cosmetic or household that needs to be tested runs through a various number of tests. These tests are done to test allergic reaction on skin, skin irritation, eye irritation, to determine the amount of a substance that can be applied or used at once, changes in cells and organs, for cancer, for effects on fertility, ability to reproduce, and birth defects, measures the absorption, distribution, and metabolism of a substance throughout the tissues and organs, and the r... ... middle of paper ... ...e medical research?" New Internationalist (2011p34- p36). Macleod, Malcolm. "Why animal research needs to improve." Nature (2011): p511. "Medical Research Council - Use of animals in medical research ." Medical Research Council - Use of animals in medical research . Medical Research Council, n.d. Web. 3 Dec. 2013. <http://www.mrc.ac.uk/Ourresearch/Ethicsresearchguidance/Useofanimals/index.htm>. Robert S. Sikes, Ellen Paul, Steven J. Beaupre. "Standars for Wildlife Research: Taxon- Specific Guidelines Versus U.U. Public Health Service Policy." BioScience September 2012: p830- p834. Tipu Aziz, John Stein, Ranga Yogeshwar. "Animal testing." Nature (2011): p457- p459. "U.S. Government Animal Testing Programs." PETA. PETA, n.d. Web. 3 Dec. 2013. .
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