The Universe: Bounded or Unbounded

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Have you ever pondered if the universe has a boundary? If it did, what does science have to say to back up the theory? Do the metaphysicists agree or disagree with physicists? All these questions and possibly more will be answered in this essay. My goal in this paper is to hopefully convince you that the universe, in fact, does have a boundary and that there is substantial evidence to justify this claim.
I will start off with what the metaphysics has to say about the universe’s “boundaries”. Keep in mind when using the term “the universe”, I am considering not just our sole galaxy, but rather all of the galaxies and space in between, so in other words the collective volume of all galaxies. According to most of the philosophers, the universe is infinite and has no boundary.
Archytas, a Greek philosopher and friend of Plato, is one who argues Aristotle’s model of the universe and believes the universe is infinite. Aristotle’s model of the universe consisted of a closed ball that includes its surface and its interior. Anything beyond the surface of the ball, the edge of space, is absolutely nothing. “Archytas pointed out an obvious problem: couldn’t you stick your hand out beyond space? If that’s possible, then whether or not you do so, there is a place outside where the hand could be – a possible place for the hand. But space is the collection of all possible places of things, and so there must be space outside, and hence no edge at all” (Huggett, p.33). Archytas’ argument suggest that whenever he reaches the edge of the universe (if there is one) and his hand goes beyond the supposed edge, then he just merely ask the same question, infinitely over each time. So Archytas makes a valid ‘what if’ to this conundrum. One way to reject...

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...about the universe’s properties. Finally, we learn that Einstein’s theory of general relativity and field equation contributed to the finding of CMB and gravitation waves that all lead back to the Big Bang. In conclusion, hopefully this essay helped you understand that the universe is indeed finite, but has no edge, it’s just expanding.

Works Cited

Huggett, Nick. "The Shape of Space 1: Topology." Everywhere and Everywhen: Adventures in Physics and Philosophy. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2010. 33-34. Print.

Poidevin, Robin Le. "The Edge of Space." Travels in Four Dimensions: The Enigmas of Space and Time. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2003. 99. Print.

Tate, Karl. "Cosmic Microwave Background: Big Bang Relic Explained (Infographic)." Space.com. TechMedia Network, 3 Apr. 2013. Web. 15 Apr. 2014. .

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