The United States must re-examine many policies previously accepted as reasonable, especially its own national energy policy. As the largest overall and per capita energy consumer in the world, the U.S. needs to decide upon a reasonable source of energy for the foreseeable future, especially since its energy needs will increase dramatically during that time. With political instability likely to remain the norm in the Middle East, oil continues to be an energy source of questionable reliability; in addition, current estimates of worldwide reserves suggest we may in fact run out of oil entirely in the next fifty years. Natural gas reserves are in fairly short supply too, and costs limit its uses as well. Another major alternative, coal, has become the nation’s leading energy source (providing more than 55% of the country’s electricity), and projected supplies could last for hundreds of years (Sweet 49). However, the tremendous output by coal-fired plants of CO2—the major “greenhouse” gas—along with other atmospheric pollutants makes it equally as undesirable as oil.
The final major source of energy on which the U.S. currently depends is nuclear power, and many (including the author of a Time magazine article in the April 29, 1991 issue) see it as a viable alternative, provided solutions are found to a few “minor” difficulties. Once the facts are known, though, it becomes clear that nuclear power (both fission and fusion) is not the answer to our current U. S. energy dilemma, primarily because it presents great risks and creates tremendous pollution hazards, and, further, because it also will continue to support the status quo of huge multi-national corporations dominating e...
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...Dangers of Nuclear Power. London: New English Library, 1986.
Croall, Stephen. Nuclear Power for Beginners. New York: Pantheon Books, 1983.
Curtis, Richard, and Elizabeth Hogan with Shel Horowitz. Nuclear Lessons: An Examination of Nuclear Power’s Safety, Economic and Political Record. Harrisburg: Stackpole Books, 1980.
Faulkner, Peter, ed. The Silent Bomb. New York: Random House, 1977.
Greenwald, John. “Time to Choose,” Time 29 April 1991: 54-62.
Shrader-Frechette, K. S. Nuclear Power and Public Policy: The Social and Ethical Problems of Fission Technology. Boston: D. Reidel Publishing Company, 1980.
Stoler, Peter. Decline and Fail: The Ailing Nuclear Power Industry. New York: Dodd, Mead and Company,1985.
Sweet, William. The Nuclear Age: Atomic Energy, Proliferation and the Arms Race. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, Inc., 1988.
In this essay, the author
Opines that the united states must re-examine many policies previously accepted as reasonable, especially its national energy policy.
Argues that nuclear power is an expensive and unreliable source of power under the control of companies with disgraceful safety records.
Explains that the origins of nuclear power should be enough to give one pause; fission reactions (albeit uncontrolled ones) were originally intended to be used as weapons. the manhattan project, its use in japan and the effect on world war ii are all well-known.
Analyzes the relationship between the fledgling nuclear industry and the military-industrial complex and other large multi-national corporations.
Explains that the u.s. government created the atomic energy commission (aec) in 1946, which was responsible for regulating the nuclear industry and promoting it.
Argues that nuclear plants are highly susceptible to a wide variety of disasters.
Argues that nuclear industry supporters scoff at terrorism and serious accidents as not credible threats, but accidents happen with alarming regularity, and true calamities have been narrowly averted.
Explains that the earliest major accident in a u.s. reactor occurred on january 3, 1961, shattering the industry's widespread claim that "no one has ever died because of nuclear reactors."
Analyzes how the "experimental reactor" argument loses ground when addressing accidents that occur at fully operational commercial reactors.
Explains that nuclear proponents often suggest that the safety benefits resulting from standardized reactor design would safeguard against many possible hazards, yet they fail to address costs and waste disposal.
Explains that nuclear plants are the single most expensive way to produce energy, despite early claims that they would be too cheap to meter. the rapid escalating price of uranium and the excessive down-times of many reactors contribute to nuclear-generated electricity being 25% more expensive than coal.
Explains that uranium contributes heavily to the upward-spiralling costs of nuclear plant operation.
Explains that breeder reactors were supposed to solve any shortages of uranium and create a "virtually limitless" supply of fuel.
Compares the toxicity of plutonium and the time-scales involved with it. the average modern nuclear plant produces 500 pounds of uranium per year of operation.
Argues that renewable energy is based on flexibility of energy sources, since the sun doesn't always shine, nor the wind always blows.
Opines that nuclear energy must not play a part in the final picture of the united states' energy future. government and industry giants are blind to the dangers for fear of losing their monopoly on energy.
Opines that the united states must re-examine its entire energy base, using a variety of power sources except the one it can't afford to use on any level.
Explains that cook, judith, red alert: the worldwide dangers of nuclear power.
Reviews curtis, richard, and elizabeth hogan's nuclear lessons: an examination of nuclear power’s safety, economic and political record.
Explains shrader-frechette's nuclear power and public policy: the social and ethical problems of fission technology.
Describes stoler, peter, and dodd, mead and company's decline and fail: the ailing nuclear power industry.
Explains sweet, william, the nuclear age: atomic energy, proliferation and the arms race.
Nuclear power plants are a safe, clean and reliable source of energy production. They are uniquely qualified to meet the growing demand for energy in the USA.
In this essay, the author
Explains that nuclear energy is produced from the nuclear fission reaction of uranium absorbing a neutron after which it splits into two fragments of nearly equal mass.
Explains that hydroelectric is good for the environment, but location specific. oil has a finite supply, high cost, and the emission of carbon dioxide.
Explains cohen, bernard l., the nuclear energy option: an alternative for the 90s.
Explains that nuclear power plants are a safe, clean, and reliable source of energy production. nuclear costs less and is environmentally cleaner than coal, which supplies approximately fifty percent of the power in the us.
Explains that environmentalists argue against nuclear power on the grounds of the danger of radiation emitted by nuclear reactors and nuclear waste, and that renewables are a better, cleaner option.
Explains that radiation is a dangerous emission, which can damage biological cells, cause cancer, or cause genetic defects in later generations.
I’ve seen nuclear power plants in several states and often wondered just how much of our power comes from the controversial source. One such plant stands out in my memory; far out in the Arkansas countryside, surrounded by wooded hills and a deep river, the instantly recognizable cooling tower caught my eye. It made me wonder, why is nuclear energy so controversial anyway? I have to admit, the scene that day was idyllic. It didn’t match at all the way nuclear power has traditionally been portrayed in the movies or on TV. What I saw was a prosperous area full of people a mere stone’s throw from the plant. I’m talking about boaters and skiers literally in the shadow of those cooling towers. In the course of my research I found that I had some misconceptions about nuclear power and that the industry just might come back to life here in the United States. I learned that about 20% of our electricity is derived from nuclear reactors. I’ve come to believe that nuclear needs to play an even larger part in our energy mix along with wind and other technologies; it’s safer than ever and cleaner by far than coal or natural gas. Even with the challenges of radioactive waste and high capital cost, nuclear has a place in U.S. energy production.
In this essay, the author
Explains that they've seen nuclear power plants in several states and often wondered just how much of our power comes from the controversial source.
Opines that the nuclear regulatory commission's report on tmi in pennsylvania was the worst nuclear accident in u.s. history and there were no injuries or deaths.
Explains that nuclear power is safer than coal or natural gas, and that demand for electricity will continue to rise.
Opines that the united states needs to make cleaner, more efficient energy a major priority for its future.
Argues that the safety of nuclear power has been grossly mischaracterized.
Argues that the cost of radioactive waste storage contributes to another objection opponents raise when discussing nuclear power.
Explains that nuclear energy should not be part of the solution to curb global warming. kanellos, makhijani, schulz, & smith, b.
Nuclear Energy has many proponents and much opposition. Many of the groups that oppose nuclear power have legitimate concerns, mainly with the dangers of nuclear material in relation with human health concerns and environmental troubles that are risked by allowing nuclear power plants to increase in number. Yet, many of these opposition groups have made outspoken and radical claims about the “hidden” motives of why nuclear power is promoted and subsidized by our federal government. For example, The Nuclear Information and Resource Service claim that the federal government has the intention of committing genocide against Native Americans because uranium mining is predominantly done on reservations. Another cry out by nuclear power opponents is the constant reliving of the few nuclear mishaps that occurred decades ago, at Chernobyl or Three Mile Island.
In this essay, the author
Opines that nuclear energy has many proponents and many opposition groups, mainly with the dangers of nuclear material in relation to human health concerns.
Explains the purpose of the paper, which is to show that policies are enacted for the issue of nuclear power in america and the negative and positive by-product that it creates.
Explains that uranium is the main fuel for creating heat for nuclear power plants.
Explains that america needs energy to sustain itself and there are many dynamics that affect the price of electricity.
Explains that total production has increased every year for the past seven years and will continue to increase to meet consumer demand. they have forecast america's energy needs in table ii up to the year 2020 using the simple regression approach dunn mentions.
Explains that half of our electricity is derived from coal. the downside to this is that coal will eventually be depleted and the external costs like global warming are higher than using nuclear fuel.
Explains that energy costs are not included in consumer utility or gas bills, nor are they paid for by the companies that produce or sell the energy.
Explains that uranium is the major fuel source for nuclear power plants, and the ocean's seawater has over 4 billion tons.
Opines that if uranium prices increase substantially more firms would form and increase mine technology as well.
Opines that the benefits of nuclear energy are real, while the risks are mostly hypothetical. the events at three mile island were serious, but redundant safety measures built into the reactor worked.
Explains that despite the melted fuel, the integrity of the reactor vessel was maintained and the containment building confined radioactive material as designed.
Explains that the small amount of radiation released into the atmosphere was equal to about one x-ray per person for those living within 10 miles of the plant.
Explains that the maximum dose received by any individual was equal to what the average u.s. resident experiences as normal background radiation each year.
Explains that since the three mie island incident in 1979, there have not been any new nuclear power plants licensed in america. future technology will make better safeguards for contamination possibilities.
Explains that nuclear waste is dangerous, and states that the department of energy has developed and maintained an underground storage facility to ensure safe long-term storage.
Explains that the department of energy's mission is to manage and dispose of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel in a manner that protects health, safety, and the environment.
Explains that the department of energy has engineered for a plausible outcome, that is, an outcome likely if policy makers don't intervene to redirect the course of events.
Explains that the nuclear information and resource service has eleven reasons why nuclear power should not be utilized.
Explains that nuclear power is too expensive and risky to attract commercial investors. even with vast government subsidies, it is difficult to get proper financing and insurance.
Analyzes how william dunn's analogy with the so-called "hydrogen economy" can be made with nuclear energy.
Explains that america has the biggest and most diverse economy in the world, with low unemployment and a high standard of living. nuclear power plants do not increase the predicament of global warming.
America Needs Nuclear Power
“The opposition to nuclear power is based, not on science, but on a hostility to science, technology and capitalism” - Travis Norsen, Ph.D. Nuclear Physics
As Congress ponders how the country can avoid an energy crisis like the one that has affected California, many people believe that only science-fiction can offer a long-term solution--a solution in which discoveries in theoretical physics would lead to a new energy-producing technology. The fuel for this technology, as they imagine it, would be abundantly available, safe, inexpensive and clean.
It may surprise those people to learn that the only fiction here is the belief that this is some future fantasy. Actually, the relevant discoveries in physics happened nearly a century ago, and the resulting technology--nuclear power--is now almost 50 years old.
In this essay, the author
Argues that the opposition to nuclear power is based on a hostility to science, technology and capitalism.
Argues that the fact that nuclear power is playing a diminishing role in our economy reveals something very important about the motives of its militant opponents.
Explains that nuclear power is a cheap alternative to fossil-fuel-based sources of electricity. it provides electricity at 5080 percent of the price of traditional sources.
Compares the safety record of the nuclear industry in america with that of private industry. the annual probability of radiation leakage is estimated at less than one in a billion.
Explains that the loudest objection raised by anti-nuclear groups is that there is no safe level of radiation.
Explains the average annual radiation dose received by americans is 360 millirems, about 300 of which come from naturally occurring sources like radon.
Explains that the hysterical claims of anti-nuclear activists continue to shape government policy, leading to absurd licensing standards for nuclear plants.
Compares the irrational standards applied to the yucca mountain nuclear-waste disposal site, which is being developed in the nevada desert. environmentalists demand that the time scale be extended to 100,000 or even 1,000,000 years.
Opines that the opposition to nuclear power represents a political, not scientific, viewpoint. the anti-nuclear groups, and the broader environmentalist movement, are fundamentally hostile to capitalism and production.
Opines that the defenders of nuclear energy need to defend industrial society by upholding man's moral right to produce the wealth on which his values and life depend.
However, nuclear power is a sustainable energy source which reduces carbon emissions, produces virtually no air pollution, and increases energy security. Because of western world energy codes and technologies, the methods of storing/disposing of nuclear waste are safer than ever. In addition to an increased focus on saving the environment, many governments have proclaimed a need for energy through a method that is environmentally friendly. According to the World Nuclear Association, “Electricity demand is increasing twice as fast as overall energy use and is likely to rise by more than two-thirds 2011 to 2035 (World Energy Needs and Nuclear Power)”. As of now, Nuclear power provides about 11% of the world's electricity (Ricotti). Only through nuclear energy will the world’s exponential energy demands be met. Despite political hype, environmental consequences, and lack of facility standardization, Nuclear power continues to offer a solution to be a worldwide, emission-free, scalable energy source that can meet global energy demands, as...
In this essay, the author
Explains that the world has been struggling about determining whether or not to utilize nuclear energy. from 1985, when american cold war fears stifled nuclear technology applications for power, to 2011, the japanese fukishima nuclear incident resulted in many anti-nuclear sentiments.
Explains that nuclear power is a sustainable energy source that reduces carbon emissions, produces virtually no air pollution, and increases energy security.
Compares the benefits of nuclear energy with other energy sources to see why it is an attractive option.
Explains that fossil fuel plants require enormous amounts of coal and other fuels. hydroelectric dams are suspect to environmental change, and wind turbines produce electricity. nuclear energy provides reliability and efficiency.
Opines that meeting energy demands can only be done once the general populous stops fearing nuclear prospects. the potential hazard of both nuclear waste and radiation from generating electricity with nuclear power is unwarranted.
Explains that there have been three major nuclear disasters in the history of the technology: the chernobyl incident, the fukishima disaster, and the three mile incident.
Explains that nuclear power plants cannot be used to create nuclear weapons due to varying processes of nuclear material enrichment.
Explains that nuclear waste is unjustly seen as harmful because of a flawed understanding of radioactivity.
Explains that nuclear waste is dangerous because of radiation, which is energy in wave form, or electromagnetic waves that travel through space.
Explains that although nuclear reactors are not common worldwide, infrastructure exists to support them. nuclear power plants can power large areas for extended periods.
Explains that nuclear energy is the only energy solution that is responsible for its own waste.
Argues that the nuclear model is misguided because it does not take into account other radioactive metals and references relative rarity.
Explains that nuclear energy, besides electricity production, is used in other constructive methods, such as medicine, desalination, and space missions.
Concludes that nuclear energy is a reliable and powerful energy source that can spearhead energy reform in an effective, high energy density method.
Shambroom, Paul. Face to Face with the Bomb: Nuclear Reality after the Cold War. New York: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003. 13-45. Print.
In this essay, the author
Explains that the cold war was a tense period of time for both the united states and the soviet union, due to the relationship between the two opposing political and economic systems.
Explains that the differences between the soviet union's communist government and the united states' capitalist political system often prevented the two nations from agreeing on key issues.
Explains that john f. kennedy ordered a naval blockade of cuba. the tensions between the us and the soviet union increased drastically due to this event.
Explains that the cuban missile crisis lasted from october 18th to 28th, 1962. the us removed and disarmed the nuclear weapons it had pointed at the soviet union.
Explains that the united states and soviet union each embody two opposing political systems, capitalism and communism, which led to the cold war.
Explains the soviet-german pact during the first two years of the war, the delay of a naval attack of german-occupied europe, disagreement in some wartime conferences that disputed the future of eastern europe.
Explains that the nuclear arms race began when the united states bombed hiroshima and nagasaki in 1945. these bombs became outdated when rocket launchers instead of planes were developed.
Explains that the us developed the hydrogen bomb, which was more powerful than traditional bombs. the atlas missile was developed in 1957, and the polaris submarines were developed.
Explains how the soviet union's advances caused unease in the 1950s and 1960s, including the creation of the tsar bomba, the largest and most powerful nuclear weapon.
Explains that the nuclear arms race still affects us to this day. scientific advances during this period of time are still in use today.
Concludes that the cold war, which lasted from the end of wwii in 1947 until the 1980’s, was caused by a number of key factors.
Explains that big ivan, the tsar bomba, is the world's largest nuclear weapon.
Even though the consequences of nuclear energy are known by the public, not all people in the society oppose the future development of nuclear energy. Nuclear power is still a safe and clean source of energy...
In this essay, the author
Explains that nimby is a word made up from the first letters of the phrase "not in my back yard". it refers to the public's opposition of new developments or hazardous technologies that may invade their private property.
Explains that after the 2011 japanese nuclear accident, it has revived anti-nuclear passions all over the world, and china is one of the places that "not in my backyard" syndrome becomes popular again.
Explains that when chinese people notice the government is increasing the contribution of nuclear power to make grater total electricity output, many people say no to the plan.
Explains that nuclear power is still a safe and clean source of energy in many people's minds. nuclear power developers and the general public support nuclear development.
Opines that nuclear energy is one of the quick solutions to china's energy deficit problem. the public believes that the problem posed by nuclear waste would soon be solved when new innovations and technologies exist.
Explains that nuclear energy is encouraged by environmentalists as a significant means of energy that can reduce greenhouse gases emissions.
Opines that the chinese government has planned to construct more nuclear power reactors in future time, and the public is now having higher possibility of living next to a nuclear plant.
Explains that environmentalists don't support nuclear energy except those who believe nuclear power can reduce greenhouse gases emissions. they emphasize the possible great impact caused by nuclear accidents to the environment.
Explains that nuclear energy has another downfall, it can increase the health risk. in case of an accident, toxic elements from the nuclear power reactor are extremely dangerous and hazardous to the surrounding area.
Explains that businessmen are other major opponents of developing nuclear energy. they believe buying new reactors and constructing new nuclear power plants are very expensive.
Explains that the development of nuclear power is restricted due to physical conditions. nuclear reactors require enormous quantities of water to operate.
Explains that people favor the use of renewable energy instead of nuclear power in the last few decades. they are now more willing to adopt energy conservation and energy efficiency measures.
Media coverage of such cases have made the public less comfortable with the idea of moving further towards nuclear power and they only opt for reducing human activities to reduce global warming. It is true that there have been some notable disasters involving nuclear power, but compared to other power systems, nuclear power has an impressive track record. First, it is less harmful and second, it will be able to cater for the growing world population. Nuclear power produces clean energy and it delivers it at a cost that is competitive in the energy market (Patterson). According to the US Energy Information Administration, there are currently 65 such plants in the Unite States (National Research Council). They produce 19 percent of the total US energy generation.
In this essay, the author
Explains that global warming is a greenhouse effect whereby gases are trapped on the earth's surface causing it to heat up.
Explains that the global warming debate has created tension between climate scientists and meteorologists especially weather forecasters on television.
Explains that the national academy of sciences report dubbed abrupt climate change: inevitable surprises lays out a scope of the problems that are inevitable.
Explains that no one can claim to have a better and complete understanding of the climate as there are various theories yet none of them are conclusive. maslin believes that carbon emissions should be reduced in the air as they are the main cause of climate change.
Explains that the national resource defense council lists what is at stake of human activities changing the earth’s climate.
Explains that the two solutions to climate change are political and practical.