The Invading Dorians overthrew Achaean kings and settled in the southern and eastern part of the peninsula. The Hellenic Period After the great migrations in the Aegean, the Greek developed a proud racial consciousness. They Called themselves Hellenes. The term Greeks, used by foreign peoples, was derived from Graecia, the Latin for a small Hellenic tribe of Epirus, the first Hellenes that the Romans had dealings with. Out of the mythology that became the basis of an intricate religion, the Hellenes developed a genealogy that traced their ancestry to semidivine heroes.
Thus began the Age of Pericles, the period of Greek history when Pericles ruled Athens. Under Pericles, Athens went through a period that has become known as the Golden Age of Athens (480-404) B.C. Athens developed a more democratic form of government that gave power to those who were Athenian. These rights did not apply to women or slaves. In 490 B.C, the Athenians defeated Persian invades at the Battle of Marathon.
Many of the city-states were fearful to join think one city state would gain more power then the other, which ended up happening. There were 150 to 173 members of the league and they met on the island of Delos. Also, they used the League to prevent future wars from happening and to keep their enemies away. The league served as many purposes. The Athenians also took advantage of the delian league by beautifying and seizing c... ... middle of paper ... ...as the most famous sculptor in Greece.
After Darius' loss to Alexander at Gaugamela, the Persian Empire, which included Lebanon, Iran, Armenia, Syria, Israel, Turkey ... , was no more. The gates of Phoenicia were open to the victorious Greeks. Tired from the Persian oppression, the Phoenician Cities welcomed the Hellenic king where only Tyre resisted but was eventually stormed after a long siege. Phoenicia after Alexander's untimely death came under the rule of Seleucids where monarchy was eradicated and the cities were ruled by high officials bearing Greek names ,so were the Lebanese forced to adopt a Greek lifestyle or was the Cedars Nation willingly accepting this new culture ? Alexander pursued deliberate Hellenization policies.
In the 480-479 BC there was great anxiety about the strength and magnitude of the Persian threat. Although the Greeks had managed to force Persians retreat from the Greek mainland, the danger of reconquest by the Persians was still present. In the battle of Plataea (479 BC), the Greeks, under the Spartan regent and general Pausanians, obliterated the Persian army. The Greeks also won a naval victory at Mycale. Although the war drugged on for many years, these two victories marked the end of the Persian threat to Europe and the beginning of the period of Greek greatness.
After discoveries from the Trojan War, this logic had changed and become reversed, gathering people once again into Greek history. To the Ancient Greeks, Mythology was at the heart of everyday life, and highly regarded as part of their history. The word “myth” originates from the Greek word “mythos” meaning “speech” and later known as “fable” or “legend.” (Myth. 2). This shows how the age of gods and mortals, origin theories and the Greek conception of philosophy are highly evident in proving that Greek society had evolved around the folklore and storytelling that had helped shape their society in believing in gods in order for their safety and stability.
This was finished with help from Persia, a conventional foe of the Greek city-states. Sparta 's union with Persia, on the other hand, made the other city-states uneasy, and they got to be less enthusiastic to rebel against Athens. Athens was in a bad position politically by now. A theocracy toppled the vote based system in 411, and the oligarchs were soon supplanted by a more direct administration. Full vote based system was restored in the mid year of 410 after a major Athenian maritime triumph over the Spartans.
The Roman Republic began approximately around 509 B.C. when the nobles drove the King and his family out of Rome. This monumental incident helped shape the start to the transformation of the monarchy into a republican governmental system. This is known to have begun by that of the Roman nobles trying to hold their power that they had gained. The Republic was “[a] city-state [which] was the foundation of Greek society in the Hellenic Age; in the Hellenistic Age, Greek cities became subordinate to kingdoms, larder political units ruled by autocratic monarchs” (Perry 105) This new Republican government, which was administered by the consuls, was not the easiest to transform.
But rather than having democracy as their forms, they ranged from oligarchy (“rule by the few”) to tyranny (“rule by the tyrant”) and the in betweens of timocracy (“rule by the wealthy”) and aristocracy (“rule by the best”). It was only in response to the crisis of corruption within their oligarch that Athens decided to start the Council of 500, and create the rule by the people (C). The power that the oligarchy held was divided among three bodies of democratic like government. The first was the ekklesia. The ekklesia was the people.
Even the few sculptor’s names known to us, usually by chance, from the imperial period are Greek names and seem to confirm the assumption that these artists’ work should be regarded simply as a late phase of Greek art” (Hanfmann, 12). The Greeks were the first western culture to figure out how to accurately depict the human form which they did through the use of geometric ratios. It is also widely accepted that it was even Greek artists who first made marble portraits for the Romans as the Romans originally had no skill with the stone. “It was certainly at first Greek artists who were entrusted by eminent Romans with the execution of portraits of themselves and of important personalities in the Roman state, just as it was Greeks who depicted Aemilius Paulus victory at Pydna and later were largely responsible for the portraits of the emperors” (Kahler 16). The Romans mainly used terracotta for their sculptures and it was only when Augustus reigned that the marble quarries at Carrara were opened and marble was used on a large scale.