The financial crisis in 2008 that led to a crisis in the banking sector, and which nearly led to a complete collapse of the economy globally, was not only caused by changes in the regulatory, regulation and legislation oversight, but also fiscal and monetary policies. Many believe that, expansion of excesses monetary and irresponsibility of some of the government agencies led to the crisis. According to reports by Taylor (2009), excesses monetary policies were the main cause of the 2008 financial crisis. He reports that, in 2003-2005 the federal reserves held its interest rate target below the well known monetary rules that state that historical experiences should be the base of a good policy. He says that, Federal Reserve tracked their rates according to what worked better in the earlier decades, instead of lowering the rates in order to prevent the crisis.
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In the late 2000s, the World suffered from a big global economic crisis which caused “the largest and sharpest drop in global economic activity of the modern era”, in which “most major developed economies find themselves in a deep recession”, according to McKibbin and Stoeckel (1). Because its consequences have a very big impact to the whole world, many economists and scientist have tried to find the causes of the crisis; and some major causes have been emphasized are greed, the defection of the free market system, and the lack of prudent regulation and supervision. This essay will focus on the global imbalances, one of the most important causes of the current economic crisis. Many researchers have pointed out that the global imbalances are the root of the recent financial crisis. Portes claims that “the underlying problem in international finance over the past decade has been global imbalances, not greed, poor incentive structures, or weak financial regulation, however egregious and important these may be.” (2).
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Regulation of Banking and Financial Services The Failure Process Imposed Upon Financial Institutions The concept of systemic risk sprung to the foreground of the public’s consciousness during the financial crisis of 2007-8 as the Too Big To Fail (TBTF) banks were bailed out by the various US Federal Government agencies e.g., US Treasury via the Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP) and the US Federal Reserve via Quantitative Easing (QE). However, as it turns out, the concept of systemic risk is not so easy to define in legal terms—as illustrated by the difficulty in nailing down the definition by US Congress via the Dodd-Frank legislation or by the US Treasury and the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) via regulation (Horton, 2012). One thing is certain—the public has no stomach for any further bailouts, thus, the era of TBTF banks and non-bank financial companies has ended. The FDIC, under new regulatory powers granted by Dodd-Frank, will resolve systemically important bank and non-bank financial institution failures i.e., bank and non-bank financial institutions that become insolvent (Horton, 2012). This process is similar to the way that the FDIC utilizes its traditional regulatory powers to resolve non-systemically important bank failures.