“The criminal process is part of the State’s response to crime, part of the mechanism which the State applies substantive criminal law to its citizens”. (Ashworth & Redmayne, 2005, p.2) Within this essay, I will be looking at the procedures in the Criminal Justice System. Before laying the foundations of this work, I will briefly dedicate a few lines on what the Criminal Justice System is about. A Criminal Justice System is a set of legal and social establishments for carrying out the criminal law in agreement with a definite set of procedural regulations and restrictions. In every country there is a need to shield, guard and protect people and their properties.
Crime Data Sources in the United States: The collection of crime data in the United States is carried out through different approaches including Uniform Crime Reports and the National Incident-Based Reporting System, which also act as the two primary sources of crime data for crime reporting. The data obtained from these sources are used for research and documentation of crime status at the county, state, and national levels. Notably, the National Incident-Based Reporting System emerged as an advancement of the conventional summary of Uniform Crime Reports that were used to track crime in the country. In addition, the Congress uses data from these sources together with those from the National Crime Victimization Survey to guide policy decisions and create suitable responses to crime. While the use of these sources helps in dealing with crime in the United States, they have some similarities and differences between them with regards to methodological processes and implications.
Criminology is the study of crime and criminals. In criminology, crime data is gathered in many different ways. All of these ways are part of the National Incident-Based Reporting system, which is a program that collects data on each respond crime incident (CITATION). There are Primary Sources of collecting crime data, and Secondary Sources of collecting crime data. Under the Primary Sources of collecting crime data are the National Crime Victimization Survey, Self Report Surveys, and the Uniform Crime Reports.
How to effectively employ measures of crime prevention are influenced greatly by the amount or extent of crime. “Official incidence reports, compiled and published as the Uniform Crime Reports and citizen-defined victimizations, compiled and published as the National Crime Surveys” (Cohen & Lichbach, 1982, p. 253). With these we have both official statistics used by the police and the justice system and then real victim surveys where by we see the amount of crime people haven’t officially reported. There are also many other day-to-day accounts, which can help narrow the scope of crime data. These include; hospital and insurance records for injuries or vehicle damages, incarceration rates, ministerial publishments and self-report surveys.
Victimology requires the investigator to create a profile of the victim, which in turn can give clues as to the identity of the cri... ... middle of paper ... ...ems that could be wrong with the criminal. All in all, these elements in criminal profiling have helped it become what it is today. Works Cited Turvey, Brent. Criminal Profiling: An Introduction to Behavioral Evidence Analysis. 2nd.
Juvenile exposure to criminal behavior increases the chances that those individuals will also engage in criminal behavior. Research gives us insight to prevent or reduce criminality and rehabilitate violators of the law that engage in criminal behavior. What causes people to commit crimes? Interdisciplinary criminology gives us a better understanding from several fields of study of a better understanding of crime. Influential factors that influence criminal behaviors are psychological, sociological, and biological.
It is important, therefore, for criminologists to create an understanding to members of the society regarding the root cause of crime and what dictates the behaviour of individuals who are considered to be criminals (Tierney 2009). Criminology has often been defined as a field of study where scholars from different disciplines in the society come together to find answers to problems identified in the society. Sociological approaches, however, have influenced theoretical conclusions in criminology. That however has not limited other factors like biological factors as explained by Walsh (2000) and Wright and Boisvert (2009). Psychological theories in criminology have also determined a given level of perception developed by the society states Durrant and Ward (2012).
Criminal Activity Then and Now Criminal justice is composed of many lateral departments that help us as a society to better understand the process that is started when criminal activity is suspected. We will examine how individuals learn how to commit crime and what motivates them to do so. This paper will discuss the steps that are taken once a crime is determine and how the Criminal Justice System is put into place to help solve and come to some type of resolution for the crime. This paper will further discuss the types of deterrence that are placed into society minds to help curve criminal behavior and activity. After reading this paper the reader should have a better understanding on how the Criminal Justice System works and why it is needed help promote a safe environment for our society.
Criminal profiling is an investigative technique used by many law enforcement agencies notably the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in the analysis of elusive criminals through studying their criminal profiles. Profiling is usually done on basis of the type and nature of crime. Usually studies are conducted as to the offenders whereabouts and occupation before, during and after a particular crime was committed. After this, evidence is then combined against the different types of personalities and a fitting description of the criminal is able to be formulated. However, it is important to note that in any criminal profiling attempt, the criminal psychological mind must be described fully by their actions during and after the crime.
In general, official statistics of crime recorded by the police and surveys of the public such as victim surveys and self-report studies are the three main measures of the extent of crime in Britain. The oldest method is to rely on official data collected by criminal justice agencies, such as data on arrests or convictions. The other two rely on social surveys. In one case, individuals are asked if they have been victims of crime; in the other, they are asked to self-report their own criminal activity. (Terence P. Thornberry and Marvin D. Krohn) Although these are a main secondary source of quantitative data, each of them may contain some drawbacks.