The Transition to Complex Societies: Moving Forward

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Before 12,000 BCE, hunting and gathering was the simple, yet dominant way of life, but when the transition to more complex pastoralist and agriculturalist societies came about, there were drastic changes to the way government was run, how societal structure was organized, how gender roles were viewed, and there were new implements of religion, stratification, and also warfare. Even today these changes are either still in place, or have affected modern day society. This transition from hunting and gathering to pastoralist and agriculturalist societies is one of the most important historical changes in our world. Hunting and gathering was the governing way of life for people until around 12,000 BCE, and although it was simple, it was very effective. Hunter-gatherers were nomadic people, living in groups as few as 10 or as large as 100. They relied solely on hunting wild game and gathering wild nuts and berries as their food source, and as a result enjoyed a varied diet. In addition, hunter-gatherers often only worked for three to four hours a day to gather food, a very undemanding workload, and then would come home, feast, and continue this routine until it was time to move on. Hunter-gatherers were constantly on the move; never staying in one place for more than two weeks. Although contact between different hunter-gatherer societies was seldom, when it did happen there were not any repercussions. There was no need to fight or battle over resources because each society was extremely similar. This similarity provided a sort of boundary in which everyone understood that in order to survive they would have to cooperate with each other and not fight over resources, but share them equally. Unfortunately, within a hunter-gatherer soc... ... middle of paper ... ...s so significant, is that advancements in technology, like architecture, changes in government, as in patriarchy and also new ideas about life, such as religion, all contribute to how modern society functions. Furthermore, these aspects of society will constantly continue to change, advance, and be added to. These three societies have produced the basis on which modern society thrives on. The conclusion that can be made is that without the transition from hunter-gatherer societies to pastoralist and agriculturalist societies, human existence, including technology, government, religion and almost all aspects of society, would still be extremely primitive. Not only society, but humans as well, will always continue in a forward motion. This transition, being one of the most important in the existence of the world, has ultimately shaped how we as humans live.

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