Ed. Wendy Martin. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1988. 89-106. Gilmore, Michael T. "Revolt Against Nature: The Problematic Modernism of The Awakening."
Knoxville : U of Tennessee P, 1990. 141-158. Garlick, Barbara. "The Handmaid's Tale: Narrative Voice and the Primacy of the Tale." Twentieth-Century Fantasists: Essays on Culture, Society and Belief in Twentieth-Century Mythopoeic Literature.
“Tragic characters are “efficient” only in courting, suffering and encompassing their own destruction.” (Gassner 463). Fitting Gassner’s definition of a tragic character, Blanche DuBois in Tennessee William’s A Streetcar Named Desire caustically leads herself to her own downfall. In the beginning of the play, Blanche DuBois, a “belle of the old South” (Krutch 40), finds herself at the footsteps of her sister and brother-in-law’s shabby apartment in New Orleans. Although DuBois portrays herself as a refined and sophisticated woman, the reader soon comes to realize that, hiding beneath all the pearls and jewels, is a raw and unstable character. Not only does she harbor fatal flaws of loneliness, alcoholism, and pride, the influence of her animalistic brother-in-law, Stanley, perpetuates her demise, eventually leading to what some critics perceive as “insanity.” From the very beginning, Blanche DuBois attempts to conceal her tragic flaws through a facade: of Virgin Mary like innocence and purity, while underneath her mask lays an identity of a prostitute and alcoholic.
West Cornwall, CT.: Locust Hill, 1988. 139-147. Evans, Robert C. and Katie Magaw. “Irony and Paradox in Frank O’Connor’s Style.” Frank O’Connor: New Perspectives. Eds.