Xenotransplantation is the transplantation of an animal organ, tissue or live cells to a human. Xenotransplantation was started due to the scarcity of human organs according to the United Network of Organ Sharing more than 107,241 Americans were waiting in 2010. Most infants who are in need of organ transplants but are too small require animal organs. The practice was pioneered a century ago by Alexis Carrel and was considered ethically controversial it was quickly rejected due to immune responses. With large advances in immunology in the 1960’s xenotransplantation reemerged.
Recent medical advances have greatly enhanced the ability to successfully transplant organs and tissue. Forty-five years ago the first successful kidney transplant was performed in the United States, followed twenty years later by the first heart transplant. Statistics from the United Network for Organ Sharing (ONOS) indicate that in 1998 a total of 20,961 transplants were performed in the United States. Although the number of transplants has risen sharply in recent years, the demand for organs far outweighs the supply. To date, more than 65,000 people are on the national organ transplant waiting list and about 4,000 of them will die this year- about 11 every day- while waiting for a chance to extend their life through organ donation (Yoakam 1).
Organ Transplant is the shifting of an organ from one person’s body to another, to replace the individuals deficient or damaged organ. Around 1955 organ transplants were uncommon and impermanent as they were only used to help the person until they were able to recover on their own. The kidney, was the first successful organ transplant and this was very significant because it was able to treat advanced kidney disease and kidney failure, but it was not a cure. This essay will describe what it is, the first successful surgeon, how the first successful transplant of a kidney came about, the importance of it at the time and finally the ongoing influence it has now. “A kidney transplant is a surgical procedure to place a healthy kidney from a live
Stem cell research remains highly promising in that “Animal research suggests stem cells may some day provide a way to repair or replace diseased tissues and organs” and it holds immense possibilities for cures of diseases such as Alzheimer’s, paralysis, Parkinson’s disease, and diabetes (The Lancet par. 1). These are diseases for which scientists have been searching for cures unsuccessfully for several decades. Adults who were pa... ... middle of paper ... ...ve that the government should fund tightly regulated stem cell research. It is completely unnecessary for scientists to create embryos to merely destroy; however, I fail to see the problem in using embryos destine for destruction for a greater good.
In 1956 scientist E. Donnall Thomas was the first one to perform a bone marrow transplant and was able to cure a patient from leukemia. This was not a real problem back then when the problem started was when scientist discovers in 1978 that the blood of the umbilical cord of a new baby had hematopoietic stem cells. And the dilemma started because in order to save or cure someone’s disease scientists have to destroying the embryo’s stem cells where at the end the embryo is destroyed if not needed any more. Why is this debate?? Scientist are creating and cloning embryos and this for some people is not ethical.
When the mother of a baby under 10 days old aborts the child, the fetus is taken and the embryos that hold the stem cells are harvested for use in research. Polls show that about 85 percent of America does not support embryonic stem cell research because it damages or destroys human embryos.Embryonic stem cell research because it has the potential to cure almost any disease and save billions of lives. The positive outweighs the negative and immorality of destroying the cells for research. So, what exactly are stem cells? Stem cells are blank copies of any cell or tissue in the body.
There are people everywhere, struggling with organ damage, like brain damage. This is a vital organ and without it functioning properly, the victims do not get to have a normal life. But all that can change with stem cells. Time Magazine, a news source well known for current events and political news stories, published an article in July 2001 to inform readers about the advantages and controversies of stem cell research. Many people don’t know about what stem cells are, here it explains where the cells come from “They come from the inner cell mass of a blastocyst, the term for a fertilized egg four days after conception” (Time Magazine).
Doctors combated this problem by using radiation to stop a patient’s immune system so the body would succumb to the transplant. This worked too effectively, and most patients died from radiation or because their immune system was no longer functioning (Timeline). The first transplant was successful, because the patient who needed a kidney got it from his twin brother.... ... middle of paper ... ...d of Education I (1954)." Civil Rights: Brown v. Board of Education I (1954). N.p., n.d.
It was a good start to human transplants, but they were still a long way away. “In 1912, Alexis Carrell received a Nobel Prize for his work in the field. The French surgeon had developed methods for connecting blood vessels and conducted successful transplants on d... ... middle of paper ... ...hey don’t work as well as real organs, I think it would be beneficial to many more people especially because there aren’t enough natural organs available (Harris 4). Many other countries allow people to sell their organs and it could help people out here in the United States as well. “If laws were changed so that organs could be purchased and sold, some people would give not out of altruism, but for the financial gain.
Currently more than 118,617 men, women, and children are waiting for a transplant. With this high demand of organ transplants there is a need of supply. According to the OPTN Annual report of 2008, the median national waiting time for a heart transplant is 113 days, 141 days for lungs, 361 days for livers, 1219 days for kidneys, 260 days for pancreas, 159 days for any part of the intestine. With this world of diseases and conditions, we are in desperate desideratum of organs. Organ transplants followed by blood into a donating organ transfusions, are ways medical procedures are helping better the lives of the patients.