The Enlightenment was an age of reason in the 18th century that brought about many changes in intellectual life. Philosophers of the Enlightenment had a commitment to spread the use of reason from nature to human society by creating concepts of human rights, progress, and tolerance. Many great historians have attempted to recover knowledge to give their perspectives on the era and to establish elaborate descriptions of past events. While some mostly focused on the rise and history of the ideas, others were more concerned with the social and cultural context of these ideas. Some Enlightenment historians consist of Peter Gay, Dena Goodman, and Fredrick Artz.
Eventually there were new thinkers like John Locke and Isaac Newton. These individuals were about reason, logic, and the scientific method. John Locke, as one example, is an enlightenment age thinker and his ideas influenced the Founding Fathers, the ideas of democracy, liberty and free will. The French Revolution is also important, a period of political upheaval that affected France in which s... ... middle of paper ... ...cause it shows the transformation from religious motivations of the Medievalists to earthly thinking by the modern day Europeans. Between 1450 and 1750, political, economic, and artistic changes affected Western Europe.
The Enlightenment sparked many modern ideas that set the French Revolution into action. In the eighteenth century, the various thinkers of the Enlightenment emerged, sharing their individual ideas. Enlightenment ideas were an opportunity for growth, change and re-birth in France. Enlightenment thinkers fueled the start of the French Revolution by challenging the social structure and political powers of their society. Because of the writings and ideas of enlightened thinkers, France was catapulted into the beginning of the end of the French monarchy.
During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries were also known as the enlightenment or the age of reason because of its new ideas and innovations. Europe experienced a series of the drastic changes and revolutions. This altered the way people lived and their standards of living. The people responsible for this were known as the philosophes. They questioned the world and suggested answers to many problems.
The “Age of Enlightenment” also known as the “Age of Reason” took place around Europe between the 17th and 18th century. It was a movement that took place to emphasize the use of reason and science in the world. In addition, it was to enlighten or shed light upon the use of factual reasoning and promote the use of evidence when doing things. Thinkers and well-known philosophers of the time such as Voltaire, Diderot, D'Alembert, Descartes, Montesquieu and more were beginning to understand and promote reasoning beyond the traditional ways of doing things. The main goal of this movement was to encourage moving past religious beliefs and superstitious prejudices into a world that is more evolved and reason is the basis of all knowledge and authority.
In one of his most famous writings of that time, Two Treatises on Government (1689), Locke established a theory where personal liberty could coexist with political power ; meaning that the people would agree to obey the government and in return, the government would have the responsibility of respecting the people’s natural rights. In other words, he laid out a social contract theory that provided the philosophy and source of a governing author... ... middle of paper ... ...e centrality of economics to politics, secularism, and progress played a very important part in the formation of the United States Constitution. With such commonwealth thinkers such as Locke, Montesquieu and Rousseau, the Fathers of the Constitution were able to establish the supreme law of the land. Using the ideals of these enlightenment thinkers, they were able to describe the organization of the government and its relationship with the states and its citizens. The Enlightenment period, and more importantly the philosophies of the thinkers of this time, pretty much changed the entire world viewed everything in the 17th and 18th centuries.
The Enlightenment is a unique time in European history characterized by revolutions in science, philosophy, society, and politics. These revolutions put Europe in a transition from the medieval world-view to the modern western world. The traditional hierarchical political and social orders from the French monarchy and Catholic Church were destroyed and replaced by a political and social order from the Enlightenment ideals of freedom and equality(Bristow, 1). Many historians, such as Henry Steele Commager, Peter Gay, have studied the Enlightenment over the years and created their own views and opinions. Henry Steele Commager was a fan of the Enlightenment and he was interested in the changes it brought to the Western world.
Scholars employ a variety of sources to examine how this process happens, and as a result, determine that means of authority evolve over time. Present day political and social upheaval has roots in the struggle for dominance on the European and, later, global stage. Scholars identify several catalysts for dominance in this period. First, the Enlightenment ideals threatened existing hierarchies by encouraging the people’s right to determine how they should be ruled. Once they established how to govern themselves so the majority attained more political influence, people were then able to concentrate on external means of power.
The Enlightenment was an eighteenth century intellectual movement that built the foundation for scientific reasoning and new world exploration. The Enlightenment period produced great and revolutionary minds from Britain, France and Europe with questioning the traditional way of thinking. Philosophers that helped build the early Enlightenment period are Thomas Hobbes and Francis Bacon. They were apart of the early years of the Enlightenment stage with discovering new scientific revolution. With the new technology being developed more and more philosophers wanted to find out what is factual and what is legend.
The Enlightenment was a period in European culture and thought characterized as the “Age of Reason” and marked by very significant revolutions in the fields of philosophy, science, politics, and society (Bristow; The Age of Enlightenment). Roughly covering the mid 17th century throughout the 18th century, the period was actually fueled by an intellectual movement of the same name to which many thinkers subscribed to during the 1700s and 1800s. The Enlightenment's influences on Western society, as reflected in the arts, were in accordance with its major themes of rationalism, empiricism, natural rights and natural law or their implications of freedom and social justice. The Enlightenment began or could be said to have been propelled by the scientific revolution of the earlier centuries, particularly the Newtonian universe, as modernizing science gradually undermined the ancient Western geocentric idea of the universe as well as accompanying set of presuppositions that had been constraining and influencing philosophical inquiry (Bristow; Lewis; Mattey). This has led to the promotion of philosophy that of natural science included, emerging from the shadows of theology to become an independent, powerful force that challenged the old and the status quo.