It occurs through the interactions of others. In Chapter 11, Mead, Blumer, and Goffman critiqued symbolic interaction as a theory of society and also discussed the differences between symbolic interaction and social structure. George Herbert Mead asserts that people have to manage with the reality of their circumstances according to the situation. Some of the concepts that Mead believes is mind, self, and society. The mind reveals an individual’s ability to conceive what it perceives and change gestures into symbols.
What may be acceptable in one culture may be the complete opposite of another. Socialization is the process that an individual acquires to conform to norms which can be language, social skills, and values (businessdictionary.com). Therefore, the things that are important in a culture are based on values, beliefs and norms which shape our behaviors in society. The development of culture and socialization can be looked at through three basic theories within sociology, which are conflict, functionalism and symbolic interactionism. However, Cooley’s three part theory of the looking-glass and Mead’s theory of formation of self also take shape in culture
Humans understand their self-concept starting with self-differentiation. Cooley developed the theory of looking-glass self which argues human development is developed through social interactions with others. Cooley argued that humans develop self-concept through two
Group members who classify with a group, therefore align their own attitudes and behaviours with individuals of other in-group members (Nickerson). The values, attitudes and intentions are shared by group members and are self-defining properties, when the in-groups value, definition or very existence is under threat hostility to outgroup starts (Hogg). The social identity approach allows a strong prediction that citizens will be negative towards asylum seekers
Giddens (as cited in Ritzer & Goodman, 2003) argues that structure and agency, although a dichotomy, mustn’t be regarded as working independent of one another. Instead the nature of human interaction and action relies on the interlaced mechanism of agency and structure. Human practices are recursive, thus individuals create both their cognizance and the structural conditions within which they act. Since social actors are reflexive and observe the ongoing flow of activities and structural conditions, they adapt their actions responsively to those evolving insights. An example of such adaptation is the ways in which stigmatized individuals manage their identity to conform to the structural norms and expectations of society.
As derived from social identity theory (SIT), secondhand embarrassment theory studies the effect a person’s social identity has on the level of secondhand embarrassment they experience, as a result of viewing a social media post. Social identity theory suggests that people are aware of their social groups and that these groups are important to how one thinks or feels about themselves as individuals (Tajfel & Turner, 197494). SIT also discusses that once people associate themselves with a group, they will strictly refer to their group as “us” and the other group as “they”. This will encourage individuals to act differently towards those not a part of their group (Kruglanski, Higgins, & Van Lange, 2012). SIT focuses more on the categorization of individuals into groups.
The social penetration theory helps us to categorize the levels of interpersonal communication we have with others. Based on these levels, we are able to categorize the importance and meaning of the relationship. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the effects of social penetration theory and how it applies to our lives. There are two hypotheses that explain the social penetration process.
The depth, level of intimacy, and breadth, the extent of self-disclosed areas, are essential to forming an intimate relationship. Communication privacy management, explaining the ways individuals manage the tension between privacy and disclosure, contributes to the overall outcome of relational closeness. The Social Penetration process can be applied to the concept of ‘work spouses’ to explain the high level of intimacy one would deem equivalent to a married spouse. In the article “Signs You Might Have a ‘Work Spouse,’” Patty Lewis and Tom Bristler shared information about their close relationship in the workplace. Lewis revealed that she shared information with Bristler from psychological to emotional perspectives.
The symbolic interaction theory is the theory that an individual’s behavior towards a particular thing is determined by the meaning that the thing has towards the individual. The meanings that people have for certain things are gained by their interactions with those things in society. These meanings are changed and refined by an interpretive process that takes place in the midst of the interaction. George Herbert Mead is one the founders of this theory. In this theory, Mead talks about concept of the Self.
Weber believes each society is different and comes up with ideal typical constructs to explain a certain society. His starting point for his theory is meaningful social action. Weber believes that humans are naturally valuing beings who carry certain values and interpret natural and social factors based on their values. Humans are conscious creatures who attach meaning towards an act which is directed towards another individual. Weber is concerned with social action, its subjective meaning and the unintended consequences of the actions.