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Lawsuits had been tried to gain rights such as the unsuccessful Plessy v. Ferguson in 1896 and the successful Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka. Although, the Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka declared the “separate but equal” clause unconstitutional, de facto segregation continued in the South. During the 1960s, two methods were used: nonviolence and violence. Violence proved to be ineffective since it perpetuated social tensions among Whites and Blacks. Nonviolence was the most effective method in bringing social change in America during the 1960s Civil Rights Movement because it attracted sympathy towards Black people, provoked positive media attention, and promoted unity among African Americans.
(n.d.). Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Retrieved December 2, 2013, from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/67474/African-Americans/285189/Reconstruction-and-after 9.) Smallwood, A. (n.d.).
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Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed October 1, 2013). Purnell, Brian. 2009. "INTERVIEW WITH DR. JOHN HOPE FRANKLIN." Journal Of African American History 94, no.
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