142. Geismar, Maxwell. “Ernest Hemingway: At the Crossroads.” American Moderns: From Rebellion to Conformity. (1958): 54-8. Rpt.
A Farewell to Arms. New York: Scribner Paperback Fiction, 1957. Killinger, John. Hemingway and the Dead Gods: A Study in Existentialism. Lexington: U of Kentucky P, 1960.
New York: Chambers Harrap Publishers, 1997. Perkins, Georgie, Barbara Perkins, Phillip Leininger. Hemingway, Ernest [Miller] Readers Encyclopedia of America Literature, 438-442. New York: Harper Collins Publishers, 1991.
Washington, DC: Lancer Books Publishing, 1961. Day, Justin. An analysis of Ernest Hemingway. 02 Aug. 2001. http://www.teleport.com/~aaugiee/hemingway.shtml Dennis, Brian. “The True Gen, An Intimate Portrait of Hemingway by Those who Knew Him.” Grove Press 21 July.
It's just a dirty trick" (FTA 331). The "it" Catherine refers to is presumably death, but, in fact, the indefinite may be referring to life, a process Catherine views as a "rotten game" (FTA 31), since so much about it is left to chance and death is always the end. Such an insight advanced by Catherine is not at all unusual, for, from the time she and Frederic first fall into love and up until the time of her death, Catherine repeatedly reveals her inherent heroic qualities, especially in the way she reflects the Hemingway "code hero" criterion of "grace under pressure." Yet critics have repeatedly misunderstood Catherine since the time of the novel's publication some seventy years ago. Those engaging in distinctly feminist analyses over the past twenty-five years have been particularly harsh on Hemingway's characterization of Catherine, viewing it as patronizing and shallow.