The Study and Applications of Nanoscience

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Science that deals with study of materials or any particles that is so small and measured in nanometer scale is called “Nanoscience”. Study about very small particles and its chemical and physical changes at nanoscale is not an easy business. Nanotechnology studies the big picture of those small particles, manipulates them to advance new devices and materials. The name “nanotechnology” was created in year 1974 (). But the concept of manipulating Nano particles has been around for centuries mainly in crafting examples are 4th century Lycurgus cup, 13th-18th centuries Damascus saber blades and etc (). Introduction of nanotechnology was to attain multiple benefits to society in many areas like energy production and conservation, pollution clean-up and medicine (). The danger that tags along with this benefiting science does need to be understood before their usage becomes prevalent. Environmental scientists who are concerned about health of organisms and hazard to environment are researching and accessing about toxicity, distribution and fate of the nanoparticles that is released into the environment. Properties of nanoparticles can impact the environment in a negative way. The surface effects of nanoparticles are both favourable and unfavourable. When they are exposed to tissues or cell of the body they get adsorbed on to their surface, thus they are highly used in medicine field for drug delivery use(). By crossing cell membrane or entering the blood stream, the nanoparticles may target other organs. Other important property is high solubility which is advantageous and reduces its toxicity but there are certain nanoparticles which do not dissolve that readily or degrade which may lead to accumulation in body or the environment ().... ... middle of paper ... ...system and the chemicals impacts on the ecosystem. () In aquatic ecosystem along with silver nanoparticle nanocopper also damages cell membrane and DNA at cellular level. Also affects fecundity, physiology and survival of many aquatic organisms including crustaceans, mussel and many fish species. ()Nanoparticle cause damages after chronic exposure. (8) when AgNP is present in salt water the toxicity is reduced than fresh water. The high ionic strength of Ag+ ion a link is created between the ion and anion. This will reduced the interaction of Ag+ at the gill where the cause of toxicity begins. In freshwater due to reduced anion, Ag+ ion competes with other cations for gill binding sites. Silver ion inhibits the Sodium/Potassium ATPase activity, resulting in redcuced uptake of sodium and chlorine ions. Thus Gill is the main site of acute toxic action of Silver ion.

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