First, I will discuss the military coup d’état, which was followed by military junta heading the Burmese state for several decades. I will then examine the issue of internally displaced people and the resulting ethnic and religious conflict. Lastly, I will investigate the issue of drug trafficking and slave labour in Myanmar. State capacity is an enduring and central process for state autonomy. The state is famously defined by Sociologist Max Weber as the ’human community that claims the monopoly of the legitimate use of physical force within a given territory.’ Therefore, state capacity is the rule of enforcement: ‘the ability of states to plan and execute policies, therefore being able to enforce laws cleanly and transparently.’ The capacity of the state is central to the legitimacy of the state, which can be challenged and measured by a countries internal coherence, stability, collection of tax, and security of the state of the enforcement law.
Myanmar: A Nation in Crisis The nation of Myanmar, also known as Burma, is currently under the rule of a ruthless totalitarian regime, guilty of numerous human rights violations and target of intense international criticism. Located in Southeast Asia, on the western border of Thailand and Laos, it has been under military rule since World War II. Burma is mired in socioeconomic crisis stemming from the rule of the military junta, and the citizens are suffering. The environment of Burma is being destroyed, the people are treated inhumanely, and the country is notorious for its contribution to global narcotics. The paragraphs below detail the current situations facing the country, why they came about, and the parties that are to blame for sending the country on a dangerous downward spiral.
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This civil conflict would escalate to a bloody series of events that inevitably would see the Guatemalan government regime held responsible for acts of genocide and other human rights violations. Guatemala held democratic elections in 1944 and 1951, they resulted in leftist government groups holding power and rule of the country. Intervention from the United States and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) backed a more conservative military minded regime. A military coup took place in 1954 to over throw the elected government and install the rule of Carlos Castillo Armas. Carlos Armas was a military general before the coup and with the CIA orchestrated operation he was made President from July 8th 1954 until his assassination in 1957.
Nowhere was this change more amply illustrated than in Guatemala, where Jorge Ubico ruled as dictator from 1931 until 1944. Ubico, a former minister of war, carried out unprecedented centralization of the state and repression of his opponents. Although he technically ended debt peonage, the 1934 vagrancy law required the carrying of identification cards and improved ... ... middle of paper ... ... to overthrow the democratically elected (1950) Guatemalan leader, Jacobo Arbenz Guzman. Apprehensive of Arbenz’s land reform efforts and the freedom afforded to the communist party under the current regime, President Truman authorized the shipment of weapons and money to anti-Arbenz groups. Within five weeks the operation to topple Arbenz quickly fizzled when representatives loyal to the president uncovered the plot and took steps to solidify their power.
As a result of CIA’s drug smuggling, Southeast Asia became the source of 70% of the world’s opium and heroin. South Vietnam was completely corrupted by a heroin trade that came from Laos, thanks to the CIA. The Hmong culture in Laos provided 30,000 men for the CIA's secret Laotian army. But in the process, opium production took over Hmong culture. To support the Hmong economy, the CIA's “Air America” transported raw opium out of the Laotian hills to the labs.
The global drug trade is estimated by the UN report to $321.6 billion in 2003. The illegal drug trade has been estimated to nearly 1% of total global trade with a world gross domestic product of $36 trillion. Since the black market can provide a secretive source of money, drug trading has been used for a long time by organizations like the CIA (Central Intelligence Agency.) These organizations would use this source of money to fund operations and proxy wars, a war resulting when opposing powers use third parties as substitutes for fighting each other directly. This statement is really interesting and lets us think about what is really happening with our government, and how corrupt it is.